To better distinguish NOG-related-symphalangism spectrum disorder (NOG-SSD) from chromosomal 17q22 microdeletion syndromes and to inform surgical considerations in stapes surgery for patients with NOG-SSD.
Mutations in NOG cause a variety of skeletal syndromes that often include conductive hearing loss. Several microdeletions of chromosome 17q22 lead to severe syndromes with clinical characteristics that overlap NOG-SSD. Isolated deletion of NOG has not been described, and therefore the contribution of NOG deletion in these syndromes is unknown.
Two families with autosomal dominant NOG-SSD exhibited stapes ankylosis, facial dysmorphisms, and skeletal and joint anomalies. In each family, NOG was evaluated by genomic sequencing and candidate mutations confirmed as damaging by in vitro assays. Temporal bone histology of a patient with NOG-SSD was compared with temporal bones of 40 patients diagnosed with otosclerosis.
Family 1 harbors a 555 kb chromosomal deletion encompassing only NOG and ANKFN1. Family 2 harbors a missense mutation in NOG leading to absence of noggin protein. The incus-footplate distance of the temporal bone was significantly longer in a patient with NOG-SSD than in patients with otosclerosis.
The chromosomal microdeletion of family 1 led to a phenotype comparable to that due to a NOG point mutation and much milder than the phenotypes due to other chromosome 17q22 microdeletions. Severe clinical findings in other microdeletion cases are likely due to deletion of genes other than NOG. Based on temporal bone findings, we recommend that surgeons obtain longer stapes prostheses before stapes surgery in individuals with NOG-SSD stapes ankylosis.