There have been reports and studies indicating audiovestibular disturbances in COVID-19 patients with variations in the percentage of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence of newly diagnosed SNHL, sudden idiopathic hearing loss (SIHL), tinnitus, and vestibular disturbances between infected and uninfected patients, as well as to identify population groups at risk.
This study used TriNetX to obtain statistics on COVID-19 (+) and COVID-19 (−) patients from 61 healthcare organizations. Propensity score with 1:1 matching was used to control confounding variables. This study evaluated the relative risk of developing audiovestibular disturbances up to 1 month after a COVID-19 test and further investigated the incidence in COVID-19 (+) subset groups.
Between COVID-19 (+) and COVID-19 (−) patients who had an audiogram, there was no statistically significant difference in SNHL or SIHL (SNHL: relative risk [RR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46–1.04; SIHL: RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.42–2.40). Race/ethnicity or specified comorbidity did not affect the incidence of SNHL or SIHL. There was a statistically significant difference in tinnitus and vestibular disturbances between the COVID-19 (+) and the COVID-19 (−) groups (RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01–1.66; RR = 2.33, 95% CI = 2.19–2.48).
New onset hearing loss is not more common in patients with a positive COVID-19 test than those with a negative COVID-19 test. Audiologic evaluation is needed to verify reported hearing disturbances. Although statistically significant in specific population groups, tinnitus and vestibular disturbances may not be clinically significant due to the low incidence.