It is estimated over 466 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss
, and untreated hearing loss
is associated with poorer health outcomes. The influence of sex as a biological variable on hearing loss
is not well understood, especially for differences in underlying mechanisms which are typically elucidated through non-clinical research
. Although the inclusion of sex as a biological variable in clinical studies has been required since 1993, sex reporting has only been recently mandated in National Institutes of Health funded non-clinical studies.
This article reviews the literature on recent non-clinical and clinical research
concerning sex-based differences in hearing loss
primarily since 1993, and discusses implications for knowledge gaps in the translation from non-clinical to clinical realms.
The disparity between sex-based requirements for non-clinical versus clinical research
may inhibit a comprehensive understanding of sex-based mechanistic differences. Such disparities may play a role in understanding and explaining clinically significant sex differences
and are likely necessary for developing robust clinical treatment options.