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Comparison of Stapedotomy Minus Prosthesis, Circumferential Stapes Mobilization, and Small Fenestra Stapedotomy for Stapes Fixation

Acar, Gül Ozbilen*†; Kivekäs, Ilkka*‡; Hanna, Bassem M.; Huang, Lin*; Gopen, Quinton*∥; Poe, Dennis S.*

doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000000280

Objective To compare the outcomes of 3 surgical techniques for primary stapes fixation: stapedotomy minus prosthesis (STAMP), circumferential stapes mobilization (CSM), and small fenestra stapedotomy (SFS).

Study Design Retrospective review of 277 primary cases operated for stapes fixation from 1997 to 2007.

Setting Tertiary academic center.

Patients Consecutive adult and pediatric cases operated for conductive hearing loss because of stapes fixation.

Interventions STAMP was performed for otosclerosis limited to the anterior footplate, CSM was conducted for congenital stapes fixation, SFS was performed for more extensive otosclerosis or anatomic contraindications to STAMP/CSM.

Main Outcome Measures Pure-tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively (3–6 wk) and the most recent long-term results (≥12 mo).

Results Ninety-nine ears in 90 patients had audiologic follow-up data over 12 months. Sixty-seven ears (68%) underwent SFS, 16 (16%) STAMP, and 16 (16%) CSM. There was significant improvement in average air conduction (AC) thresholds and air-bone gap (ABG) for all techniques. Mean ABG for SFS closed from 29 to 7.1 dB (SD, 6.0), for STAMP from 29 to 3.8 dB (SD, 5.8 dB), and for CSM from 34 to 20 dB (SD, 8.2 dB). AC results were better in the STAMP than in the SFS group, especially in high frequencies. Bone conduction improvements were seen in all groups, highest in STAMP (4.3 dB) and CSM (3.8 dB) groups, but the differences between groups were not statistically significant.

Conclusion Satisfactory hearing results were achieved with all the techniques, and STAMP showed better hearing outcomes, especially in high frequencies. CSM is a good option for children and patients in whom it is desirable to avoid a footplate fenestration or prosthesis. CSM and STAMP had significantly higher rates of revision for refixation than SFS.

*Department of Otolaryngology & Communication Enhancement, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; †Istanbul Goztepe Training and Research Hospital, Ear Nose Throat Department, Istanbul, Turkey; ‡Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Tampere University Hospital and the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; §Department of Otolaryngology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; and ∥Department of Otolaryngology, University of California Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dennis S. Poe, M.D., Department of Otolaryngology & Communication Enhancement, Boston Children’s Hospital, 333 Longwood Avenue, Lo-367, Boston, MA 02115; E-mail:

Copyright © 2014 by Otology & Neurotology, Inc. Image copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health/Anatomical Chart Company