The overall objective of this study was to evaluate facial asymmetry in patients with unilateral Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). The results showed a high frequency of facial asymmetry parameters of the opposite side of head turn in unilateral DRS patients.
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the characteristics of facial asymmetry in unilateral exotropic and esotropic DRS and to compare the findings with orthotropic subjects.
This cross-sectional comparative case series study was performed in 44 consecutive patients with head turn caused by DRS and 44 orthotropic subjects from 2016 to 2019. Four pictures were taken from the patients' faces. The first and second pictures were taken when patients had head turn and when the head was completely straight for calculating the facial angle and relative facial size, respectively. The third and fourth pictures were taken when the head was positioned downward (to compare the size of the cheek) and upward (to evaluate nose asymmetry).
The mean ± SD age of DRS patients and orthotropic subjects was 16.23 ± 9.92 and 20.68 ± 11.82 years, respectively. The frequency of facial asymmetry and all facial parameters (cheek compression, nasal tip and columella deviation, and compression of one of the nostrils) was significantly higher in DRS patients compared with orthotropic subjects (P
< .001). In DRS patients with facial asymmetry, columella and nasal tip deviation (P
= .006) and cheek and face compression (P
= .03) were significantly more prevalent in the opposite direction of head turn. In the DRS group, the mean ± SD age of the patients with and without facial asymmetry was 17.37 ± 9.76 and 7.40 ± 6.54 years, respectively (P
The frequency of facial asymmetry and all facial parameters was significantly higher in DRS patients compared with orthotropic subjects. In unilateral DRS patients, the face was more commonly affected on the opposite side of head turn.