Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

OVS ANNOUNCES

OVS Announces

Optometry and Vision Science: September 2016 - Volume 93 - Issue 9 -
doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000921
  • Free

IN THIS ISSUE:

Is Anything New in Myopia?

Figure
Figure

In his invited Award lecture at the 15th International Myopia Conference in China, our author reminds us that much of the interest in speculative causes for myopia progression was noted 150 years ago. The difference appears to be that today there is experimental data that supports some of the ideas. (p. 1022)

Treating Myopia with Lenses

Figure
Figure

Myopia is increasing around the world, and several evidence-based treatments for myopia control are available and show promise. Our author makes the case that lens treatments, particularly multifocal contact lenses, are effective for myopia control and should be considered as a first-line treatment. A number of areas for further research are identified. (p. 1045)

Eye Growth in Children

Figure
Figure

In his Josh Wallman Lecture at the 2015 International Myopia Conference, the author provides an overview of his recent work examining the ocular and environmental factors that impact eye growth in children. The potential impacts of the choroid and ambient light exposure upon myopia development are noted, as are the implications for myopia control. (p. 1031)

Animal Studies Inform Human Myopia Mechanisms

Figure
Figure

The author argues that animals shed light on the mechanisms involved in myopia development related to outdoor activity. Myopia is clearly retarded, he argues, by rearing animals under bright light. (p. 1052)

More Animal Studies on Light Exposure and Myopia

Figure
Figure

Animal models illustrate why time outdoors reduces myopia. And children who spend more time outdoors, where light levels range from 25,000 to 130,000 lux, have less myopia. In this sense, studies in animal models are helping to reveal the retinal mechanisms that cause this. (p. 1049)

Public Health Concerns for Myopia in Asia

Figure
Figure

The author sounds the alarm on myopia prevalence and its increase in South East Asia. She argues that public policies are needed to address this alarming fact. (p. 1055)

Pathological Myopia: Concerns for South East Asia

Figure
Figure

Developed countries in Asia are faced with a high prevalence of high myopia in young adults, and this trend is emerging in other parts of the world. Several school-based clinical trials demonstrate interventions increasing time spent outdoors significantly slow myopia onset. The author suggests mandatory school programs are needed to promptly minimize the prospect of pathological myopia. (p. 1058)

Peripheral Refraction and Myopia

Figure
Figure

The corresponding author (Atchison) comments on the role of lens treatments in myopia, related to peripheral refraction, as part of a paper he presented at the15th International Myopia Conference in Wenzhou, China in 2015. (p. 1042)

Myopia: Future Research Directions?

Figure
Figure

Tantalizing treatment options to limit further global increases in the prevalence of myopia are emerging, but we still have much to discover about the underlying causes of myopia. The author summarizes what more we still need to discover and suggests possible funding priorities for future research. (p. 1061)

Mystery of Orthokeratology as Myopia Treatment

Figure
Figure

The authors wonder whether reports of axial length shortening with orthokeratology may have a basis in choroidal thickening because axial length measurements are often made to the RPE interface. They conclude that although choroidal thickening is associated with some shortening of axial length at all parafoveal locations measured, albeit by an unclear mechanism, other factors must be involved in the effectiveness of orthokeratology for myopia treatments. (p. 1064)

Relation of Eye Shape to Peripheral Refraction in Myopia

Figure
Figure

Meridional and refraction patterns of relative peripheral refraction and relative peripheral eye length are consistent with those of retinal shape over comparable visual field angles and retinal regions. (p. 1072)

Internal Astigmatism Compensation Worse for Myopes

Figure
Figure

For the COMET study, internal astigmatism was calculated as refractive astigmatism minus corneal astigmatism in about 400 young adult myopes and 200 age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched non-myopes. A new compensation analysis using 3D plots allows easier visualization of compensation of corneal astigmatism by internal astigmatism. Compensation is poorer in myopes than non-myopes and when corneal astigmatism was high. (p. 1079)

Refraction and Age Implications for Multifocal Lenses Based on Pupil Size

Figure
Figure

Pupil size is an important design consideration for simultaneous image multifocal or bifocal contact lenses; optimal visual performance is desired at all viewing distances under varying lighting conditions. The authors investigated the effect of age, refractive error, and luminance on pupil size in 300 myopes, hyperopes, and emmetropes of varying ages (18–78). Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size, with larger pupils measured for younger and myopic subjects. The authors suggest a faster progression is required across the optical zone for established presbyopes and hyperopes. (p. 1093)

Corneal Toricity Impacts Treatment Zone in Orthokeratology

Figure
Figure

The authors confirm the magnitude of treatment zone (TZ) decentration for minimally toric corneas (less than 1.5D) was less than for eyes with moderately toric corneas (1.5–3.5D) after a single overnight wear of spherical orthokeratology (OK) lenses. The result bears directly on previous anecdotal reports. (p. 1101)

Popular Orthokeratology Designs Compared

Figure
Figure

Although all three designs compared produced clinically significant hyperopic central retinal shifts in refraction, there were no significant differences in relative peripheral refraction by the three lens designs along the horizontal and vertical meridians. This suggests attempts to alter myopia progression effects are likely to be similar between these different OK lens designs. (p. 1112)

Controlling Myopia with Contact Lenses

Figure
Figure

The authors reviewed all 110 patients (14–36 years old) seen in their university Myopia Control Clinic between 2010 and 2014. They report a significant reduction in myopia progression for orthokeratology and dual focus contact lens wear approaches. However, there was no difference in treatment efficacy, or axial or vitreous chamber length changes between those groups. They argue that if both dual focus soft lenses and orthokeratology can arrest myopia progression, clinicians should use these methods for myopia control. (p. 1120)

Measuring Mobility in Extreme Low Vision

Figure
Figure

Vision restoration with bionic eyes, stem cells, and gene therapies has accelerated. The challenge? Measuring improvements in poor functional vision (orientation and mobility and activities of daily living). Such assessments are essential for proof of efficacy of vision restoration treatments. The authors describe the validation of a new orientation and mobility assessment in legally blind retinitis pigmentosa patients. (p. 1127)

Driving and Vision Reduction While Elderly

Figure
Figure

In older drivers, visual impairment, including blur from uncorrected refractive error, is more likely. Driver distraction using in-vehicle information only compounds difficulty. The authors’ study of blur, distracters, and age on hazard perception and resultant eye movements suggests that visual impairment and distracters are independently detrimental to driving safety. (p. 1137)

Questionnaire for Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints

Figure
Figure

Visual impairment is a major health issue and people with visual impairments are at higher risk for visual, musculoskeletal, and balance (VMB) complaints. With the aim to reduce such complaints, the authors introduce, validate, and assess reliability of a clinical VMB questionnaire intended to improve care and low vision rehabilitation. (p. 1147)

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Changes with Treatment

Figure
Figure

In diabetic eyes, structural and functional changes can mimic glaucomatous damage. Shortly after pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) in diabetic patients, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (as determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography [SD-OCT]) initially increases, followed by a decrease in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness after 6 months. The authors urge caution interpreting RNFL in diabetic eyes undergoing PRP who may be suspected of glaucoma. (p. 1158)

Neck Position Impacts IOP Measures

Figure
Figure

Although raising the bed head by 30 degrees and raising both head and torso significantly lower IOP compared to the supine position, the authors discover that resting on multiple pillows, which raises only the head, does not lower IOP. The results have importance for IOP measurement of bed-positioned glaucoma patients. (p. 1163)

Not Your Classical Gyrate Atrophy

Figure
Figure

The authors present an uncommon clinical case of a gyrate atrophy-like presentation with normal plasma ornithine. But with the novel finding of retinal crystal deposition, multimodal testing confirmed this phenotypical variation to classic gyrate atrophy. (p. 1173)

von Hippel-Lindau Eye Complications Caused by Terson’s Syndrome

Figure
Figure

von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant systemic condition associated with vascular tumors of the brain, spinal cord, and eye. Eye tumors typically present as retinal capillary hemangiomas alongside intraocular complications. The authors present a VHL patient who developed an intraocular hemorrhage caused by Terson’s syndrome related to recent brain surgery. (p. 1181)

© 2016 American Academy of Optometry