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OVS Announces

OVS Announces

Optometry and Vision Science: March 2012 - Volume 89 - Issue 3 - p A1-A3
doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31824d4bef
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  • New Insights on Myopia Development
  • Figure.
  • Myopia is classically associated with excessive axial length. Interestingly, and for most of us surprisingly, the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error study group's 19 years of data on crystalline lens dimensions before and after the onset of myopia indicate that the compensatory response of the lens to eye growth (thinning, flattening, and losing power) stops abruptly within a year of myopia onset. More provocatively, the authors suggest that the onset of myopia is not just a problem of excessive growth but of axial growth that becomes independent of the crystalline lens. They rationally propose that an important understanding of the basis of the decoupling between lens and length growth requires further research (p. 251).
  • Figure
    Editor's Choice open access
  • Do High Myopes Benefit From Improved Peripheral Refraction Associated With Standard CL Correction?
  • Figure.
  • There is a lot of interest in designing spectacle and contact lenses for manipulating the refractive status of the peripheral retina as a potential means for slowing childhood myopia progression. These authors report that correcting the foveal refractive error in high myopia with standard spherical soft contact lenses can itself result in significant absolute myopic defocus in the peripheral retina. Their results are consistent with earlier optical modeling that suggests, at least in high myopia, standard spherical soft contact lenses may be beneficial in reducing myopia progression by reducing peripheral hyperopic defocus (p. 263).
  • Uncorrected Astigmatism Surprisingly Potent in Reading for Children
  • Figure.
  • Our authors show that induced astigmatic refractive error can impair performance on standardized measures of reading performance for children. Even for relatively small amounts of astigmatic blur of 1.00 DC, against-the-rule astigmatism had significantly greater effects on performance than did with-the-rule astigmatism. These findings have implications for the minimal prescribing criteria for astigmatic refractive errors of school-aged children (p. 271).
  • Binocular and Monocular Fixation Changes in Low Vision Patients With AMD
  • Figure.
  • Although patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have good ocular motor coordination during binocular fixation, a change to monocular viewing can lead to disturbances in ocular motor control, especially in the worse eye. As examples of fixation shifts, the authors document, in separate patients, a loss of fixation control when the better eye was covered and the worse eye viewed the target and a slow drift of the viewing eye that was associated with a large phoria in the covered eye (p. 277).
  • Personal Response Criteria Minimize the Effectiveness of Utility Estimates as Outcome Measures
  • Figure.
  • Health-state utilities are frequently used to measure cost-effectiveness in medicine when comparing the success of interventions in reducing disability and in improving quality of life. The authors present and evaluate a model of analyzing utility estimates that clarifies what is truly being measured, as well as the individual criteria used by the person to estimate each health-state's value. This has implications for understanding, as well as future use of, utility estimates for measuring visual outcomes (p. 288).
  • Axial Length Measurements of Mouse Eyes Really Matter!
  • Figure.
  • The mouse is a powerful experimental model to investigate genetic and environmental factors related to refractive development, even in understanding human myopia. However, a limitation is accurately and precisely measuring axial length in this small eye where optical modeling suggests 1 D of refractive change corresponds to a 5 to 6 μm difference in axial length! The authors assessed partial coherence interferometry and spectral domain optical coherence tomography for measuring axial length and found that the two methods agreed well and had good precision (p. 296).
  • What is the Real Cost of Recycled Spectacles?
  • Figure.
  • Many of the programs aimed at mitigating the problem of uncorrected refractive error and the resulting avoidable blindness have used recycled (donated) spectacles as an inexpensive approach. But are they? The authors argue from available data that, while well-intentioned, recycled spectacles will neither suit many with uncorrected refractive error nor provide a low-cost solution to the problem. Furthermore, they assert the selection and use even for those that are suited may not always be efficient. The authors try to identify the true cost of delivering recycled spectacles (p. 304).
  • Meibomian Gland Morphology is Predictive of Dry Eye
  • Figure.
  • Meibomian gland dysfunction is accompanied by morphological changes of the meibomian glands, which can easily be evaluated by non-contact meibography. Our authors' study suggested that morphological changes of meibomian glands such as “gland drop-out,” “gland thickness,” and “curvature of glands” are related to dry eye and combining upper and lower lid gland criteria improves predictive ability of dry eye (p. 310).
  • Daily Wear Equally Protective of Symptomatic Corneal Infiltrative Events Across Brands, Materials, or Lens Care Products
  • Figure.
  • This retrospective, masked, multicenter, case-control study of corneal infiltrates in soft contact lens wearers, at 5 academic eye care centers, identified 201 potential cases of corneal infiltrates. For each case, three control soft contact lens wearers were selected who had received care in the same time frame at the sites. The results of multivariate analysis found no significant association with any specific lens material, lens care product, or combinations thereof but did identify well-known risk factors of extended wear and young age and found a significant protective effect from use of daily disposable soft lenses (p. 316).
  • Prophylactic Antibiotics With Contact Lens Wear
  • Figure.
  • Contact lens-associated corneal inflammation and infection is a major concern to lens wearers, practitioners, and the contact lens industry. Contact lenses with antibacterial properties are being studied. As a preliminary investigative step, the authors questioned whether control of potential pathogens, through 3 months of prophylactic antibiotic eye drops during continuous wear of silicone hydrogel lenses, would have any deleterious safety risk effects. They concluded there was minimal safety risk. Although there was less corneal staining superiorly, reduced microbiota on lids, and mild increase in bulbar redness (only at 3 months), it did not affect the microbiota of the throat or change resistance to tobramycin (p. 326).
  • Tear Meniscus Measurement by SOCT and Dry Eye Diagnosis
  • Figure.
  • Although dry eye syndrome is the most common disease of the ocular surface, there remains a need for sensitive, specific, noninvasive, rapid, and comfortable diagnostic tests. Most tests are invasive and influence test results. Modern technologies may enhance noninvasive diagnosis of dry eye syndrome. The authors evaluate the application of tear meniscus parameters (height, cross section, and depth) measured with anterior segment Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT). They argue that the technique has clinical utility in diagnosis of dry eye syndrome (p. 336).
  • Variables Impacting the Measures of Corneal Hysteresis
  • Figure.
  • The Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) contributes to improved clinical management with its measure of corneal hysteresis. From a PubMed search of publications, the author concludes that corneal thickness, the level of edema, intraocular pressure, and corneal temperature as well as the area, location, rate, duration, and sequence of corneal unloading and loading all may need to be considered as significant variables when assessing corneal hysteresis. The author acknowledges the potential for the ORA but urges better understanding and further development of its functions and applications (p. 343).
  • Malignant Eyelid Lesions Often Demonstrate Lash Loss But Not Always
  • Figure.
  • It is well accepted that madarosis (lash loss) overlying a suspicious lid lesion increases the likelihood of malignancy. The authors, with this Case Report, draw attention to the fact that madarosis, as a sole indicator of malignancy, is poor. They urge clinicians to consider factors other than madarosis when determining malignant potential of eyelid margin lesions (p. 350).
  • Multiple Parallel-Line Endotheliitis—A Form of Herpes Simplex Keratitis?
  • Figure.
  • Multiple parallel-line endotheliitis is uncommon and the pathoetiology is unclear. Serological findings from our authors' case indicate that herpes simplex virus may be involved. Exquisite responsiveness to topical steroid therapy suggests that an immune-mediated, rather than infective, process plays an important role (p. 353).
  • Dramatic Visual Acuity Recovery for an Advanced Retinal Disease
  • Figure.
  • The authors describe the visual recovery of a patient with advanced idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN). IRVAN is a rare idiopathic retinal inflammatory condition that leads to capillary non-perfusion and the ischemic-sequelae of neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhages, tractional retinal detachments, and neovascular glaucoma. Prognosis is poor if treated after neovascularization. This article reports a young female presenting with visual acuity (VA) of 20/20 OD and count fingers OS. She had anterior and posterior neovascularization, extensive peripheral ischemia, and a vitreous hemorrhage OS from IRVAN. After PRP and intravitreal bevacizumab, her VA improved to 20/40 OS (p. 356).
© 2012 American Academy of Optometry