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OVS Announces

OVS ANNOUNCES

Optometry and Vision Science: August 2011 - Volume 88 - Issue 8 - p A1-A3
doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31822a64b6
  • Free

IN THIS ISSUE:

• High Hyperopia Detected with Good Sensitivity and Specificity in Infants

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Editor's Choice open access

Infants are rarely screened for hyperopia. Our authors found that retinoscopic and PowerRefractor screening of 2-month-old infants in a large pediatrician practice revealed a large proportion (7.5%) of infants had significant levels of hyperopia (in excess of +5.00 D) that might benefit from detection. The use of +4.50 D accessory glasses, during use of the PowerRefractor with cycloplegia, successfully extended its operating range. This allowed detection of the frequent high levels of hyperopia with sensitivity and specificity comparable to cycloplegic retinoscopy. (p. 905)

• Non-Contact Optical Biometry for Children?

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Our authors conclude that non-contact optical biometry has many advantages over A-scan contact ultrasound biometry and pachymetry in children. With about 550 school children, they found that anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), and lens thickness (LT), compared between Lenstar and ultrasound devices, were highly correlated. However, we are warned that AL and LT measures cannot be used interchangeably with these two instrument approaches. Nevertheless, they conclude that if this is noted, non-contact optical biometry can be used for children instead of A-scan contact ultrasound biometry and pachymetry. (p. 912)

• Crowding in Children's Vision Tests

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The authors found that for single optotype tests, vision was stable across the age range of 4 to 9 years. In contrast, line acuity improved with age and was also dependent on the test design (interoptotype spacing and type of optotype), suggesting an age-dependent reduction in crowding. They propose a different course of maturation of the elements of crowding (contour interaction, gaze control, and attention) than visual acuity, as a function of age. (p. 920)

• Sensitive Tests for Ocular Hypertension

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Both psychophysical and electrophysiological tests have been advocated in early optic nerve dysfunction, although rarely in a “head to head” comparison. Our authors report the sensitivity and specificity of a range of psychophysical and electrophysiological tests on a group of clinically asymptomatic subjects with suspect ocular hypertension (OHT) and compared their results of healthy controls and patients with open-angle glaucoma. Frequency doubling perimetry, contrast sensitivity, visual evoked potential, and pattern ERG all appeared to be more sensitive in detecting retinal ganglion cell damage than standard automated perimetry differentiating subjects with suspected OHT. (p. 928)

• Central Corneal Thickness Measures Compared

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Our authors assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by high-resolution rotating Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam, Oculus) and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT; RTvue-100, Optovue) after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) and compared the agreement with ultrasound pachymetry (USP). The Scheimpfug imaging and optical coherence tomography measures were reliable and interchangeable but could not be directly interchangeable with ultrasound pachymetry. (p. 940)

• Effect of Tear Film Deposition of Cholesterol on Bacterial Adhesion to Contact Lenses

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Proteins and lipids can form deposits on contact lenses immediately after lens insertion into the eye. These deposits may contribute to clinical complications such as discomfort and infection. This study indicates that cholesterol adsorption/absorption alone in unworn lenses, without the interaction of other tear proteins, does not affect bacterial adhesion or growth. (p. 950)

• Proteins Vary in Effect on Bacterial Adhesion to Contact Lenses

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Bacterial adhesion to contact lenses is the first step in a series of events that leads to contact lens-related infections or inflammation. Using an in vitro model, the authors examine the influence of protein deposits on bacterial adhesion to conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. They demonstrate that different proteins have different effects on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. (p. 959)

• “Rub and Rinse” Impact on Multipurpose Disinfection Solutions

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This study evaluated the effect of “rub and rinse,” “rinse-only,” or “no rub and no rinse” on the disinfection efficacy of multipurpose disinfection solutions (MPDS) when used with various contact lenses [silicone hydrogel (lotrafilcon B and galyfilcon A) and conventional soft contact lenses (etafilcon A)]. The results showed that minimizing regimen steps adversely affects the effectiveness and efficacy of multipurpose solutions. The authors conclude that “rub and rinse” is the most effective regimen and should be recommended in conjunction with all multipurpose lens care solutions and all contact lens types, particularly with silicone hydrogel lenses. (p. 967)

• Risk Factors that Interrupt Soft Contact Lens Wear in Youth

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The authors report on age and other risk factors for ocular events that interrupt soft contact lens (SCL) wear in youth. Chart review of 3,549 SCL wearers yielded 522 events among 426 wearers. The risk of an event increased from ages 8 to 18 years, showed modest increases between ages 19 and 25 years, and then began to decline after age 25 years. These results suggest that the risk of events peaks in late adolescence and early adulthood. Perhaps most interesting, the authors report that relative to older teens and young adults, patients younger than 14 years presented with significantly fewer events resulting in interrupted lens wear. (p. 973)

• Practitioners, Contact Lens Practices, and Risk Taking

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In this study of Australian practitioners, those with higher risk-taking personalities saw a higher volume of contact lens patients, yet the perceived importance of the risks and the related advice given to contact lens wearers were similar to those practitioners who took fewer risks. (p. 981)

• Revealing the Anterior Focus of the Keratoconic Cornea

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With few exceptions, histopathological reports on keratonic corneas lack morphometry and, in some cases, are limited to light microscopy and a protocol using a high osmolality fixative that further distorts an already distorted cornea. Our authors' study is reported to be the first morphometric approach, using more appropriate fixative, to characterize keratonic corneas histopathologically. They establish it as an anterior corneal disease that, in the initial stages, leaves the posterior portions structurally unharmed. The epithelium appears to be involved in the pathophysiology, but it remains uncertain whether this corneal layer is the origin of the disease. (p. 988)

• Accommodation with Multifocal Contact Lenses

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Not only were the distance visual acuities the same for three different multifocal contact lenses but also the authors report that for non-presbyopic study, subjects accommodation and accommodative facility were normal. As expected, presbyopic subjects showed an increased lag of accommodation with accommodative demand and a zero near accommodative facility rate. (p. 998)

• New Approach to Tear Protein Analysis

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Membrane array technology was used to evaluate the global immune and angiogenic profile of tear proteins in patients with active ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. The authors noted that IL-8 and MMP-9 were increased during active disease and decreased after systemic immunomodulatory therapy. They suggest that protein array analysis may provide a well-tolerated assay to monitor levels of inflammatory markers in the tears to the response to therapy for other patients with inflammatory disease of the ocular surface. (p. 1005)

• Preserving Vision and Avoiding Fatality

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Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease that affects mucous membranes and the skin. It is characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which attack intercellular adhesion molecules leading to acantholysis. Mucous membrane damage is common in the oral cavity, but ocular involvement is rare and underdiagnosed and underestimated. In this Case Report, our authors review PV, its pathophysiology, work up, treatment, and prognosis. They emphasize a multidisciplinary approach for preserving vision and preventing potentially fatal consequences. (p. 1010)

• Optical Coherence Tomography Reveals Details of Solar Maculopathy

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Solar maculopathy is a result of intense, focused visible or ultraviolet radiation causing photochemical and thermal damage to the macula. The advent of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) allows high resolution of the chorioretinal architecture to assess the organization and integrity of the retinal layers for a patient with solar maculopathy. The authors, using two cases, demonstrate the reliability of spectral domain OCT as a biomarker of visual function in chronic solar maculopathy. The characteristic fragmented loss of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction correlates with decreased visual function in cases of solar maculopathy. (p. 1014)

© 2011 American Academy of Optometry