Ophthalmic Photography: Retinal Photography, Angiography, and Electronic Imaging, 2nd ed. Patrick J. Saine, Marshall E. Tyler. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001. Pages: 424. Price: $150.00. ISBN 0-7506-7372-9.
The second edition of Ophthalmic Photography: Retinal Photography, Angiography, and Electronic Imaging is a valuable reference for ophthalmic photographers and those who have an appreciation for ophthalmic photography. The text covers topics ranging from a historical perspective of ophthalmic photography to ophthalmic imaging and digital image capture. The authors have compiled very useful and practical information and have illustrated the text with photographs and schematic drawings where appropriate.
Chapter 2, Fundus Photography: Instrumentation and Technique, provides detailed information regarding the basics of fundus photography. The author describes a step-by-step procedure for taking fundus photographs with additional sidebar articles containing practical tips such as choosing a Fundus camera. Full-color comparisons accompany the discussion regarding film types as well as the archival properties of film. Photographs are used to illustrate the effect of field of view, exposure, and plane of focus in addition to common artifacts that may affect the final image quality. A table includes Spanish, French, and Greek translations for instructions commonly given during fluorescein angiography. The chapter ends with a discussion of new technology for fundus photography that allows for ultra-wide angle imaging.
Chapter 3, Stereo Fundus Photography: Principles and Technique, reviews the physiology and optics involved in perception of stereopsis. Discussion regarding instrumentation and technique was well illustrated by schematic diagrams. I would have appreciated further information regarding the application of stereo fundus photography for glaucomatous optic nerves as well as the modified seven standard fields for diabetic retinopathy. Recommendations for viewing of stereo pairs are helpful, as are the discussion of techniques for viewing computer stereo images and the use of stereo images for print, publication, and presentation.
Chapters 4 and 5 provide detailed explanation of ophthalmic angiography. A descriptive approach for the fluorescein injection is given in Chapter 4. This discussion about injection techniques might benefit from illustrations or photographs, as would a discussion of complications including extravasation, phlebitis, and local skin necrosis. The more practical aspects of the fluorescein angiogram are presented in a step-by-step approach in Chapter 5. A figure outlining the timing of fluorescein frames is a useful tool for new angiographers. There is significant overlap in the material presented in these two chapters, and perhaps future editions might combine the information in a single chapter dedicated to fluorescein angiography.
Chapter 6 outlines the procedures involved in the processing and printing of fluorescein angiograms. The author begins with a description of the facilities and equipment that would be needed for an ophthalmic darkroom and discusses the indications for each component of the darkroom as well as practical characteristics. Photographs of the equipment help to illustrate the discussion. Step-by-step instructions allow the photographer to learn how to process film as well as produce contact sheets, 35-mm slides, and paper enlargements.
Chapter 7 reviews the use of electronic media in ophthalmic photography. The author discusses basic principles of digital images as well as factors that impact the image quality. A comparison of output devices is particularly useful in its comparison of different printers ranging from high-resolution digital printers to ink-jet and laser printers. Image storage, archiving, and retrieval are also discussed along with the use of software to collect, organize, and enhance your images. The author demonstrates imaging tools and enhancement effects to show how software can impact the images received. The author also brings up the ethical issue of image enhancement and the ability to mislead viewers with sophisticated enhancement tools. Tables that guide readers through the decision-making process when purchasing a digital angiography system and imaging software are particularly helpful.
Chapter 8 provides excellent information regarding retinal and choroidal anatomy as well as a discussion about the interpretation of fluorescein angiograms. The figures that accompany this discussion are excellent and might be better included in Chapter 5 so that the photographers could appreciate the importance of obtaining early-phase and late-phase images for particular conditions.
Ophthalmic Photography: Retinal Photography, Angiography, and Electronic Imaging is a practical manual written by experts in the field of ophthalmic imaging. This is a great reference text for those with need for hands-on instruction and for those who appreciate the skills of ophthalmic photographers.