This study was conducted to evaluate facial asymmetry in unilateral congenital superior oblique muscle palsy (SOP). The results showed that all facial asymmetry parameters had a higher frequency in SOP patients compared with orthotropic individuals.
This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of facial asymmetry in unilateral congenital SOP and compare with orthotropic individuals.
This cross-sectional comparative case series was conducted in 58 patients with ocular torticollis caused by SOP (mean ± standard deviation age, 18 ± 12 years) and 58 orthotropic individuals (mean ± standard deviation age, 19 ± 13 years). The exact form of torticollis was determined by direct observation from yaw, roll, and pitch axes. Four photographs were taken from patients: (1) with torticollis to calculate the amount of head tilt; (2) with the head in the straight position to calculate the facial angle and relative facial size (RFS); and (3 and 4) with the head positioned downward (to compare the cheek size) and upward (to assess columella deviation and nostril asymmetry).
Twenty-nine patients (50%) had a head tilt, 23 (39.66%) had combined head tilt and a face turn, and 6 (10.44%) had a pure face turn. The mean ± standard deviation of head tilt, facial angle, and RFS was 10.11 ± 6.31°, 1.11 ± 1.67°, and 1.003 ± 0.126 in SOP patients, respectively, and the mean RFS and facial angle were significantly higher in SOP patients compared with orthotropic individuals (both P < .001). Facial hemihypoplasia, unilateral cheek compression, nostril asymmetry, and columella deviation were observed in 43 (74.1%), 31 (53.4%), 39 (67.2%), and 38 patients (65.5%), respectively, which were all significantly more common compared orthotropic individuals (P < .001). Facial asymmetry was seen in 52 patients (91.2%) and 17 orthotropic subjects (29.3%), respectively (P < .001).
All quantitative and qualitative facial asymmetry parameters had a higher frequency in SOP patients compared with orthotropic subjects.