Keratoconus (KC) is typically a bilateral asymmetric corneal condition associated with anisometropia. A detailed evaluation of binocular vision function is therefore a critical component of ocular examination in these patients for early detection and treatment of binocular vision anomalies.
The purposes of this study were to measure the various parameters of binocular vision (BV) in patients with KC and to identify the factors that possibly influence them.
This was a prospective, observational study of BV in patients with KC and with best-corrected visual acuity ≤0.4 logMAR in each eye. Age-matched, nonstrabismic normal patients served as controls. Binocular vision examination included motor assessment, accommodation parameters, and fusional vergence.
Binocular vision parameters of 84 KC patients were compared with those of 71 normal controls. The KC group showed statistically significant differences between fellow eyes in refractive cylinder (0.44 ± 2.1 D, P = .03), best-corrected visual acuity (0.06 ± 0.09 logMAR, P = .001), and maximum keratometry (6.64 ± 8.2D, P = .005). The control group showed no significant difference in any refractive or keratometric parameter between fellow eyes. Sixty-six (78.6%) of 84 KC patients had various combinations of BV anomalies: 48.8% had impaired stereopsis, 44% had abnormal fusional vergence, and 39.3% had accommodative infacility. Among individual parameters, all except accommodative amplitudes and negative distance fusional vergence showed statistically significant impairment compared with controls (P < .001). Median (interquartile range) stereoacuity was 70 (50 to 550) arc sec in the KC group and 40 (30 to 50) arc sec in control (P < .0001). There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between stereoacuity and positive fusional vergence for near (P = .008; Spearman coefficient, −0.28) and weak but significant negative correlation between phoria status and negative fusional vergence for near (P = .03; Spearman coefficient, −0.24).
A large proportion of KC patients have BV anomalies. Assessment of BV function should be included in the clinical examination of all KC patients.