Placido disc–based videokeratography is one of the most extensively used methods for corneal topographic assessments in keratoconus. Anterior corneal wavefront analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective tool to manage keratoconus eyes. However, currently, there is no clinically adequate classification system for keratoconus.
The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of anterior corneal high-order aberrations in keratoconus classification provided by Placido disc–based videokeratography conducting a cross-validation analysis.
Corneal topography of 70 normal and 77 keratoconic eyes (divided according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification [n = 21, stage 1; n = 30, stage 2; and n = 26, stage 3]) was assessed using Placido disc–based videokeratography (Oculus Keratograph [Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany]). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to compare the mean values of coma, trefoil, tetrafoil, secondary astigmatism, spherical aberration, and coma-like, third-, and fourth-order root mean square (RMS) to calculate cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity to discriminate between normal and stage 1 keratoconus eyes and between each keratoconus stage after cross-validation analysis.
All wavefront aberrations were significantly different between the normal and keratoconus groups (P ≤ .01). The coma and third-order RMS values (cutoff values, 0.367 and 0.359 μm, respectively) provide better sensitivity (99 and 100%, respectively) and specificity (100%) to discriminate keratoconus (stage 1) from healthy eyes compared with trefoil, tetrafoil, secondary astigmatism, spherical aberration, and coma-like and fourth-order RMS values (sensitivity >84% and specificity >57%). The coma and third-order RMS values showed the highest specificity (100%) and great sensitivity (90 and 87%, respectively) to differentiate between stages 1 and 2 and good sensitivity (97 and 100%) and specificity (81 and 88%) to differentiate between stages 2 and 3.
Anterior corneal high-order aberrations, specifically coma and third-order RMS, could be useful in keratoconus diagnosis and topographical classification. These new cutoff values could improve different stages of keratoconus eyes discrimination.