Foveal hypoplasia is described clinically by the absence of a foveal pit and subsequent reduction in visual acuity. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides precise segmentation of the retinal vascular supply demonstrating the vascular perfusion in affected patients. Preservation of perfusion is linked to visual acuity and function.
This case report describes a patient with foveal hypoplasia and preservation of visual acuity with preserved retinal capillary density of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses on optical coherence tomography angiography. In addition, the diagnostic findings of foveal hypoplasia as seen on optical coherence tomography angiography will be described.
A 25-year-old Caucasian female with history of foveal hypoplasia presented to the clinic for evaluation. She had no other visual, ocular, or systemic complaints. Her ocular history included Duane syndrome, accommodative insufficiency, and traumatic brain injury. Her medical history included cardiac ablation secondary to supraventricular tachycardia, gall bladder removal, maxillary sinus cyst, and a history of migraines. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/15 in the right and left eyes. Funduscopic examination was unremarkable. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed absence of the anatomical foveal pit with normal inner retinal morphology. Optical coherence tomography angiography confirmed a decreased foveal avascular zone; however, a vascular density analysis showed normal perfusion to the inner retinal plexuses.
Optical coherence tomography angiography is a rapid, noninvasive imaging modality that provides excellent insight into the microvasculature supply to the retina and choroid. As such, it allows for an in-depth analysis into the pathophysiology behind certain conditions such as foveal hypoplasia.