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Can Applications Designed to Evaluate Visual Function Be Used in Different iPads?

de Fez, Dolores, PhD1*; Luque, María José, PhD2; García-Domene, Mari Carmen, PhD2,3; Caballero, Maria Teresa, PhD1; Camps, Vicente J., PhD1

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001293

SIGNIFICANCE Apple devices could be suitable for vision tests, provided that the test has been correctly adapted to the device, after considering the spatial and colorimetric characterization of the screen.

PURPOSE The majority of vision applications has not been developed by vision or colorimetry experts and suffers from conceptual and design errors that may lead average users to an erroneous assessment of their visual capabilities. The reliability of vision tests depends on the accurate generation of the necessary visual stimuli in a particular device. Our aim was to ascertain whether a given color test, designed for a colorimetrically characterized device, might be used in another similar device.

METHODS We evaluated color reproduction errors in three iPad tablets of different models with Retina screens, using their individual color characterization models and the model derived for another device.

RESULTS Our results showed, even with this small sample, the high degree of error caused when disregarding the fact that the colorimetric design valid for a given device may not be correct when displayed in another.

CONCLUSIONS The distortion of the chromatic content may lead to subjects with vision defects to pass as normal or vice versa, compromising diagnosis reliability.

1Departamento de Óptica, Farmacología y Anatomía, Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain

2Departamento de Óptica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain

3Departamento de Calidad Visual, FISABIO-Oftalmología Médica, Valencia, Spain *

Supplemental Digital Content: The Appendix, available at, lists applications (apps) consulted based on vision tests (Google Play and Apple Store). In each one it has been indicated if they have special tests for color vision and spatial vision.

Submitted: November 7, 2017

Accepted: June 23, 2018

Funding/Support: None of the authors have reported funding/support.

Conflict of Interest Disclosure: None of the authors have reported a financial conflict of interest.

Author Contributions: Conceptualization: DdF, MJL, VJC; Data Curation: DdF; Formal Analysis: DdF, MJL, MTC; Investigation: DdF; Methodology: DdF, MTC; Software: DdF, MJL, MCG-D; Supervision: DdF, VJC; Validation: DdF; Writing – Original Draft: DdF, MJL; Writing – Review & Editing: DdF, MJL.

Supplemental Digital Content: Direct URL links are provided within the text.

© 2018 American Academy of Optometry