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Peripheral Monochromatic Aberrations in Young Adult Caucasian and East Asian Eyes

Osuagwu, Uchechukwu, L., OD, PhD1*; Verkicharla, Pavan, PhD2; Suheimat, Marwan, PhD1; Atchison, David, A., DSc, FAAO1

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001180
Original Investigations

SIGNIFICANCE Myopia prevalence rates differ between racial groups. If the growth of the eye is sensitive to differences in optical input, the difference in spherical aberration between East Asian and Caucasian eyes found in this study may be important in understanding myopia development.

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine differences in peripheral wavefront aberrations between two racial groups.

METHODS Wavefront aberrations were measured using a COAS-HD aberrometer across the 42 × 32° central visual field on 37 right eyes of young adults (18 Caucasians, 19 East Asians; mean age 21.5 ± 2.4 years). The mean spherical equivalent refraction was −1.94 ± 1.63 diopters (D) with a range of −5.87 to +0.16 D. Effect of race and visual field position on refractions, individual Zernike aberration coefficients up to the fourth order, higher-order root-mean-square aberration, and total root-mean-square aberration were assessed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance.

RESULTS Caucasians and East Asians had similar relative peripheral myopia across the visual field. All higher-order aberration coefficients were affected by visual field position. Race had no significant effect on any higher-order Zernike coefficient, but the difference in mean vertical coma coefficient C 3 −1 across the visual field (i.e., average of 38 field locations) approached significance, being less positive in Caucasians than in East Asians (P = .08). When correction was made for the Caucasian group being slightly less myopic than the East Asian group, spherical aberration coefficient C 4 0 was less positive in Caucasians than in East Asians by 0.04 μm (P = .001). The rates of change of coma coefficients across the field were not affected by race.

CONCLUSIONS Caucasians and East Asians had similar relative peripheral myopia, but with less positive spherical aberration coefficient in Caucasians than in East Asians. It remains to be determined whether aberrations have a role in the difference of myopia prevalence rates in different countries.

1Institute of Health & Biomedical Innovation and School of Optometry & Vision Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

2Brien Holden Institute of Optometry and Vision Sciences, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India *

Submitted: March 30, 2017

Accepted: October 16, 2017

Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Australian Research Council grant DP140101480 and by Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc.

Conflict of Interest Disclosure: None of the authors have reported a conflict of interest.

Author Contributions: Conceptualization: ULO; Formal Analysis: ULO; Methodology: ULO, PV; Writing – Original Draft: ULO; Writing – Review & Editing: ULO, PV, DAA; Funding Acquisition: MS, DAA; Resources: MS; Software: MS; Investigation: DAA; Project Administration: DAA; Supervision: DAA.

© 2018 American Academy of Optometry