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Effect of Pupil Size on Wavefront Refraction during Orthokeratology

Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; Navarro, Rafael; González-Méijome, José Manuel

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000989

Purpose It has been hypothesized that central and peripheral refraction, in eyes treated with myopic overnight orthokeratology, might vary with changes in pupil diameter. The aim of this work was to evaluate the axial and peripheral refraction and optical quality after orthokeratology, using ray tracing software for different pupil sizes.

Methods Zemax-EE was used to generate a series of 29 semi-customized model eyes based on the corneal topography changes from 29 patients who had undergone myopic orthokeratology. Wavefront refraction in the central 80 degrees of the visual field was calculated using three different quality metrics criteria: Paraxial curvature matching, minimum root mean square error (minRMS), and the Through Focus Visual Strehl of the Modulation Transfer Function (VSMTF), for 3- and 6-mm pupil diameters.

Results The three metrics predicted significantly different values for foveal and peripheral refractions. Compared with the Paraxial criteria, the other two metrics predicted more myopic refractions on- and off-axis. Interestingly, the VSMTF predicts only a marginal myopic shift in the axial refraction as the pupil changes from 3 to 6 mm. For peripheral refraction, minRMS and VSMTF metric criteria predicted a higher exposure to peripheral defocus as the pupil increases from 3 to 6 mm.

Conclusions The results suggest that the supposed effect of myopic control produced by ortho-k treatments might be dependent on pupil size. Although the foveal refractive error does not seem to change appreciably with the increase in pupil diameter (VSMTF criteria), the high levels of positive spherical aberration will lead to a degradation of lower spatial frequencies, that is more significant under low illumination levels.


Clinical & Experimental Optometry Research Lab (CEORLab), Centre of Physics, School of Sciences (Optometry), University of Minho, Braga, Portugal (MF-R, JMG-M); and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas—Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain (RN).

Miguel Faria-Ribeiro Clinical & Experimental Optometry Research Lab (CEORLab) Centre of Physics (Optometry) University of Minho 4710-057 Braga, Portugal e-mail:

© 2016 American Academy of Optometry