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Restoring Adult Stereopsis: A Vision Researcher’s Personal Experience

Bridgeman, Bruce*

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000272

ABSTRACT In February 2012, the author acquired improved stereoscopic vision after viewing Martin Scorsese’s film Hugo in 3D. The author had been deficient in stereo vision all of his life because in the first two decades, one eye deviated outward from the gaze position of the other. At that time, he was an alternator (alternating exotrope) showing strabismus (>20 prism diopters) without amblyopia. After viewing the 2-hour film, the Wirt stereo threshold decreased from 200 to 80 arcsec, and stereoscopic vision became a vivid experience. Exophoria decreased to 7 prism diopters. Numerous personal and research experiences throughout the author’s career helped to interpret the phenomenon, which suggests a powerful new method for treating stereo-deficient patients.


Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California.

Bruce Bridgeman University of California, Santa Cruz, Department of Psychology, 409 Social Sciences 2, Santa Cruz, California 95064, e-mail:

© 2014 American Academy of Optometry