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Blink Patterns: Reading from a Computer Screen versus Hard Copy

Chu, Christina A.*; Rosenfield, Mark; Portello, Joan K.

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000157
Original Articles

Purpose Many subjects experience ocular and visual symptoms during computer use. Previous studies have reported a reduced blink rate during computer operation and suggested that this may account for some of the symptoms, particularly dry eye. However, these earlier investigations failed to include an appropriate control condition. To determine whether it is computer screen viewing that produces the change in blink rate, the present study compared blink patterns when reading from either a desktop computer monitor or a hard copy printed text under equivalent viewing conditions.

Methods Subjects (N = 25) were required to perform a continuous 20-minute reading task from either a desktop computer screen or a printed hard copy page at a viewing distance of 50 cm. Identical text was used in the two sessions, which was matched for size and contrast. Target viewing angle and luminance were similar for the two conditions. Subjects were videotaped during the task to determine their blink rate and amplitude. Immediately after the task, subjects completed a questionnaire regarding ocular symptoms experienced during the trial.

Results Mean blink rates for the computer and hard copy conditions were 14.9 and 13.6 blinks per minute, respectively (p = 0.58). However, a significantly higher percentage of incomplete blinks was observed for the computer condition (7.02 vs. 4.33%; p = 0.02). No significant correlation was found between the symptom score and the percentage of incomplete blinks.

Conclusions When compared with an equivalent hard copy control condition, blink rates were not reduced during computer operation. It is proposed that the previously observed differences in blink rate are more likely to be produced by changes in cognitive demand rather than the method of presentation. However, a higher percentage of incomplete blinks was noted during computer operation, which may have been associated with visual fatigue.


MCOptom, PhD, FAAO


State University of New York, College of Optometry, New York, New York (all authors).

Mark Rosenfield State University of New York College of Optometry 33 West 42nd St New York NY 10036 e-mail:

© 2014 American Academy of Optometry