Share this article on:

Pacific Acuity Test: Testability, Validity, and Interobserver Reliability

Lowery, John P.*; Hayes, John R.; Sis, Megan; Griffith, Anna§; Taylor, Darcy§

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000104
Original Articles

Purpose The Pacific Acuity Test (PAT) is a new vanishing optotype test designed to measure recognition visual acuities in preverbal children using a face and opposing oval figure in a forced-choice preferential looking format. This study evaluates the testability, validity, and interobserver reliability of the PAT.

Methods Fifty-two subjects, aged 6 to 36 months, were tested by a primary observer to determine both recognition and resolution visual acuities using the PAT. Subjects were also tested using the Cardiff Acuity Test (CAT) to provide comparative resolution acuities. Two additional observers independently evaluated video-recorded subject responses for testability and interobserver reliability analysis. An independent grader determined acuity thresholds from each observer’s observations, and a logistic regression model was used for additional analysis of acuity thresholds, validity, and testability.

Results Forty-seven of 52 subjects completed testing to obtain visual acuities with the PAT. Sixty-nine percent of subjects followed the desired forced-choice strategy to yield recognition acuities with the PAT. Testability for children younger than 18 months was 44%, whereas 96% of children 18 months and older responded to the recognition testing format. Testability for resolution acuity was 92% and 98% for the PAT and CAT, respectively. The mean difference between PAT recognition and CAT resolution acuity thresholds (PAT-CAT) was +0.11 logMAR (0.15 SD, p < 0.001). The observers were in agreement as determined by intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 for both PAT recognition and the CAT.

Conclusions High testability and valid recognition acuity measures were achieved using the PAT with children by approximately 18 months of age. The recognition acuities obtained with the PAT were higher, particularly for younger subjects, than comparative resolution acuities found with both the PAT and CAT. Interobserver reliability of observers was the same between the PAT and the CAT.

*OD, MEd




Pacific University College of Optometry, Forest Grove, Oregon (all authors).

John P. Lowery Pacific University College of Optometry 2043 College Way Forest Grove, OR 97116 e-mail:

© 2014 American Academy of Optometry