Although visual analysis, motor coordination, and visual-motor integration can each affect performance on a test of visual motor integration, previous studies have not reported the relative importance of these components to the relation between visual motor integration and learning readiness, reading, and math. This investigation relates academic achievement in reading and math to performance on the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and its subtests, Visual Perception and Motor Coordination.
The VMI was administered to 155 children in second through fourth grades (7 to 10 years of age; mean, 8.4 ± 1.0 years). The Otis-Lennon School Ability Test and Stanford Achievement Test were administered by the school.
A significant difference was found in performance on the VMI and Visual Perception and Motor Coordination subtests between children in the upper and lower quartiles in reading (p = 0.020, p < 0.001, and p = 0.027, respectively) and math achievement (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01, respectively). The VMI standard score was significantly correlated with Stanford total math standard score (p = 0.001) and a trend toward significance was found for Stanford reading score (p = 0.050) while partially controlling for verbal school ability and age. In addition, Visual Perception and Motor Coordination standard scores were significantly related to Stanford math (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively) and reading score (p = 0.008 and p = 0.027, respectively) after partially controlling for verbal school ability and age. Multiple linear regressions controlling for performance on the VMI and each subtest, as well as age and verbal cognitive ability, showed a significant relation between the Visual Perception subtest score and math achievement.
Visual perceptual ability should be assessed in children with poor math and/or reading achievement.
The Ohio State University, College of Optometry, Columbus, Ohio
Received August 13, 2001;
revision received July 7, 2003.
Marjean Taylor Kulp
The Ohio State University
College of Optometry
320 West 10th Ave.
PO Box 182342
Columbus, OH 43218-2342
Presented as a scientific poster at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Optometry, Seattle, Washington, December 12, 1999.