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Monocular Estimate Method Retinoscopy: Central Tendency Measures and Relationship to Refractive Status and Heterophoria


Articles: Original Article

Background. Monocular estimate (estimation) method (MEM) is a widely used clinical test of accommodative response. Normative data for MEM are available based on the central tendency measures from a population of schoolchildren but not a clinical population. Also, the relationship of accommodative response to refractive status and heterophoria has been researched, but not with MEM as the determinant of the manifestation of accommodative response.

Methods. A group of 211 pre-presbyopic clinical subjects were tested with MEM for purposes of comparing the central tendency measures of a clinical population to established normative data and determining whether MEM varied with refractive status or near phoria.

Results. A lag of about one-third diopter was the mean MEM result for this clinical population. The median was +0.25 D. Myopia and near esophoria have a statistically significant relationship to MEM.

Conclusions. The central tendency measures derived from MEM administered to this population replicate the central tendency measures found in a previous normative study. This study provides preliminary evidence that the difference between accommodative response and accommodative stimulus, as measured by MEM, may be influenced by myopia and esophoria.

Southern California College of Optometry, Fullerton, California

Received November 24, 2000;

revision received August 12, 2002.

John Tassinari

1368 E. Walnut St.

Pasadena, CA 91106-1528


© 2002 American Academy of Optometry