To assess the association between thyroid eye disease (TED) and glaucoma.
Patients 18 years of age and over enrolled in the NIH All of Us Research Program, a nationwide cohort, were extracted. Those with conditions relating to TED were identified and compared with 2020 US Census-matched controls without a diagnosis of TED in a 1:4 ratio. The authors used Pearson’s χ2 tests to study demographics by TED status, and logistic regression to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the association between TED and glaucoma (any type, including glaucoma suspect), using those without TED as the reference group. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, eye doctor visits, and smoking status.
A total of 393 cases of TED were identified, and 1,572 US Census-matched controls. The median age of the cohort was 63 years (interquartile range: 48–73 years). Age, gender, and race/ethnicity varied by TED status (p < 0.001). Overall, 114 (29.0%) of TED cases had a diagnosis of glaucoma, compared with 94 (6.0%) of non-TED controls. On bivariate logistic regression models, those diagnosed with TED were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with glaucoma compared with controls (odds ratio: 6.42; 95% confidence interval: 4.76–8.70; p < 0.001). This trend persisted on multivariable logistic regression controlling for confounding factors (odds ratio: 3.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.85–6.20 p < 0.001).
Individuals with TED were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with glaucoma. Clinicians caring for patients with TED should be aware of this elevated risk and arrange glaucoma evaluation, accordingly.