Implantable electronic cardiovascular device such as cardiac pacemakers and implantable defibrillators are common life-saving devices. Device-related complications can arise when undergoing surgical interventions with electrosurgical tools due to electromagnetic interference, based on electrocautery type, implantable electronic cardiovascular device type, electrocautery location, and a number of other factors. The risk of device-related complications due to electrocautery in oculoplastic surgery has not been established. This systematic literature review assesses prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of electrocautery-related device complications in oculoplastic surgery.
Systematic literature review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analysis guidelines and used the search terms “pacemaker,” “implantable cardioverter defibrillator,” “electrocautery,” “cautery,” and “electrosurgery” through June 2022. Inclusion criteria were full-text articles, discussing ocular, oculoplastic, or other facial surgery. Exclusion criteria were non-English language or surgery focused on other parts of the body. Full-text manuscripts of identified articles were reviewed and relevant data were extracted.
Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Two studies were level I and II evidence, while 10 studies were level III or IV. There were no reports of electromagnetic interference with bipolar cautery use. With monopolar cautery use, cases of electromagnetic interference were reported, but without related significant morbidity or mortality. Safety recommendations to minimize electrical flow through the implantable electronic cardiovascular device are described.
There were no reports of implantable electronic cardiovascular device–related complications from bipolar or thermocautery use in ophthalmic or oculoplastic surgeries. Monopolar have been associated with electromagnetic interference, but additional preoperative and perioperative measures can be taken to mitigate this risk.