Current literature lacks a summary of knowledge on intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and glaucoma in thyroid eye disease (TED). This review aims to augment existing literature by providing such a summary. It qualitatively evaluates current knowledge on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and management of concomitant ocular hypertension or glaucoma in TED patients.
In this narrative review, relevant publications were identified through a computerized database search. Search results were screened for relevance. Correspondence, Editorials, and Letters to the Editors were excluded. References cited within the identified articles were used to further augment the search. Information extracted for qualitative analysis included epidemiologic data, methods of IOP assessment, management protocols, and response to treatment.
Studies in current literature are relatively heterogenous, differing in country of origin, TED cohort sizes, and IOP measurement techniques. Further studies are required to elucidate the true epidemiologic relationship between TED and ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Proposed models of IOP elevation include elevation of episcleral venous pressure, mucopolysaccharide deposition within the trabecular meshwork, restrictive myopathy, steroid-induced glaucoma, and secondary glaucoma. IOP-reducing effects of TED treatment options are discussed.
While raised IOP in TED is a common phenomenon, the diagnosis of glaucoma in TED requires a high index of suspicion before any intervention.