To investigate how patient-specific implants (PSIs) are being utilized for periocular facial skeletal reconstruction. Specifically, to characterize indications for custom implants, areas of reconstruction, intraoperative variables impacting implant placement, as well as to report on postoperative outcomes.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who received a PSI for periocular skeletal reconstruction between 2015 and 2019. Three independent academic centers were included in this study, which encompassed 4 different primary surgeons. Medical records, radiographic imaging, and operative reports were reviewed.
Eleven patients, 8 females and 3 males, ages ranging from 15 to 63 years old received PSIs. The average duration of follow up was 16 months ± 6.6 months (range: 9–30 months). The most common underlying etiology for reconstruction was prior trauma (54.5%) followed by benign tumor resection (18.2%). The most frequent area of reconstruction involved the inferior orbital rim and adjacent maxilla (63.6%). Implant materials included porous polyethylene, polyetheretherketone, and titanium. Six implants required intraoperative modification, most commonly accommodate critical neurovascular structures (66.6%) or improve contour (33.3%). Two postoperative complications were noted, both in the form of infection with 1 implant requiring removal.
Reconstruction of complex facial skeletal defects can be achieved by utilizing computer-assisted design software and 3D printing techniques to create PSIs. These implants represent the most customizable option for symmetric restoration of the facial skeleton by not only addressing structural deficits but also volumetric loss. This was particularly apparent in reconstruction of the orbital rim and midface. PSIs were found to be of most benefit in patients with prior trauma or complex skeletal defects after tumor resection.