To investigate the associations between systemic medical conditions and types of ocular surgery and the development of aponeurotic ptosis.
In this case-control observational cohort study, the relative prevalence of involutional ptosis in a large population of adult patients was assessed. Deidentified patient data from a 10-year time period was obtained from the electronic medical records of 5 large academic medical centers. Patients were selected based on ICD9 and ICD10 codes for involutional ptosis. Control patients were age and gender matched and randomly selected from a general adult population. Systemic comorbidities were determined based on ICD9 and ICD10 codes, and prior ocular surgeries based on CPT codes. The influence of systemic comorbidities and ocular surgery was examined utilizing logistic regression analysis.
The study cohort consisted of 8297 adult patients with involutional blepharoptosis and 13,128 matched controls. The average age was 65 years. The 3 significant risk factors for developing ptosis were ocular surgery, hyperthyroidism, and type II diabetes with odds ratios of 4.2, 2.5, and 1.45, respectively (p < 0.05). Strabismus, cornea, and glaucoma surgeries were more highly associated with developing ptosis (p < 0.05). Strabismus surgery had the greatest odds ratio of 3.37, followed by cornea surgery at 2.31, and glaucoma surgery at 1.56.
Involutional ptosis is likely a multifactorial process. This study demonstrates that risk factors for the development of ptosis include ocular surgery, specifically strabismus, cornea, and glaucoma surgery, as well as hyperthyroidism and type II diabetes.