There is an imperfect correlation between the histology and behavior of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). In addition, recurrence is common, and dedifferentiation may occur over time. Preferred primary treatment is intact excision, but friable pseudocapsules and tenacious attachments can thwart this goal in the crowded, visually sensitive orbit. This study addresses the fate and appropriate management of incompletely excised orbital SFT.
Among a single surgeon’s 7-case experience with orbital SFT, 3 cases involved incomplete primary excision, either before (2 cases) or after (1 case) referral. We reviewed the clinicopathologic data in these 3 cases, with follow-up intervals of 18, 21, and 52 years after initial presentation. We reviewed the English-language literature on SFT, with special attention to evolving nomenclature, orbital involvement, recurrence, malignant transformation, and management options.
Benign versus malignant designations of SFT vary with histological and behavioral criteria. Approximately 150 orbital cases have been reported. Published rates of primary malignancy and recurrence across all histologic categories are 6% to 12% and 30% to 37%, respectively. We identified 43 well-documented recurrences (range, 6 months–33 years; median, 3 years) and 10 cases of histological dedifferentiation (range, 14 months–33 years). Because of SFT’s rarity and needed follow-up intervals, the value of adjuvant therapy is not yet proven. In follow up of 18, 21, and 52 years after initial presentation, our 3 cases with incomplete excision showed either no recurrence (Case 1) or no morphological dedifferentiation (Cases 2, 3).
A treatment algorithm is predicated on the completeness of surgical excision and histological features. However, we recommend case-by-case multidisciplinary decisions in a tumor-board setting.