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Age-Related Changes in the Clinical Phenotype of Compressive Optic Neuropathy in Thyroid Eye Disease

Campbell, Ashley A., M.D.*,†; Nanda, Tavish, M.D.; Oropesa, Susel, M.D.; Kazim, Michael, M.D.*

Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May/June 2019 - Volume 35 - Issue 3 - p 238–242
doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000001213
Original Investigations
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Purpose: This study compares the age-related clinical features of thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON) to those with noncompressive disease (TED-NC).

Methods: A retrospective case series review of 165 orbits from 121 patients with TED-CON were compared with an age- and gender-matched cohort of 88 orbits from 44 patients with TED-NC with institutional review board approval. Clinical features including exophthalmos, dyschromatopsia, restricted ocular motility, visual acuity, and mean deviation on 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field were compared in 5 age groups. A previously validated formula, the Columbia TED-CON Diagnostic formula, used to mathematically predict the presence or absence of compressive optic neuropathy was applied, and the sensitivity and specificity of the formula was measured in each age group.

Results: Exophthalmos, dyschromatopsia, restricted ocular motility, and mean deviation on 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field vary significantly across age groups in patients with TED-CON. Conversely, only visual acuity and dyschromatopsia vary significantly across age groups in patients with TED-NC. There was a significant difference between the TED-CON and the TED-NC groups when comparing the 2 groups by decade. The Columbia TED-CON Diagnostic formula had high sensitivity and specificity (74–90%) in all age groups.

Conclusions: This is the first study to date demonstrating the age-related variability of clinical characteristics in a large series of patients with either TED-CON or TED-NC. The clinical phenotype of TED-CON varies significantly by decade when examining exophthalmos, dyschromatopsia, ocular motility restriction, and mean deviation on 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field. These clinical characteristics are also significantly different when compared with a population of patients with TED-NC.

This large case series reveals the age-related changes in clinical phenotype of thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON).

*Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive and Orbital Surgery Division, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Columbia University Medical School, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Accepted for publication July 9, 2018.

The authors have no financial or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Presented at American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 48th Annual Fall Scientific Symposium on November 9, 2017 in New Orleans, LA, U.S.A.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Ashley A. Campbell, M.D., Oculoplastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maumenee 505, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD. E-mail: ashley.campbell@jhmi.edu

© 2019 by The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc., All rights reserved.