To review the important laboratory serological investigations routinely performed for the diagnosis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the orbit and ocular adnexa.
Review of the literature as well as personal clinical experience of the authors. Due to the extensive nature of the topic, the review has been split into 2 parts. Part I covers thyroid eye disease, IgG4-related disease, and myasthenia gravis. In part II of the review, sarcoidosis, vasculitis, Sjögren syndrome, and giant cell arteritis will be discussed.
Several relatively specific serologic tests are available for the diagnosis of a variety of inflammatory and serologic diseases of the orbit.
In cases of limited orbital or sino-orbital disease, serologic testing may be negative in a significant number of patients. Specifically, the clinician should be wary of ruling out limited orbital sarcoid or sinoorbital granulomatosis with polyangiitis based on serologic testing alone. Part I of this review has covered serologic testing for thyroid eye disease, IgG4-related disease, and myasthenia gravis. In part II, the authors discuss serologic testing for sarcoidosis, vasculitis, Sjögren syndrome (SS), and giant cell arteritis (GCA).