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Vascular Malformations of the Orbit: Classification and the Role of Imaging in Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies*

Rootman, Jack M.D.*†; Heran, Manraj K.S. M.D.; Graeb, Douglas A. M.D.

Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: March/April 2014 - Volume 30 - Issue 2 - p 91–104
doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000000122
Major Review

Purpose: To describe the authors’ experience with orbital vascular malformations using the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification and the preferred radiologic techniques.

Methods: Review of clinical and radiologic experience from 1976 to 2012. This article presents the findings from several studies conducted on vascular malformations of the orbit, all of which received institutional review board approval when needed.

Results: The orbital vascular malformations can be evaluated, classified, and managed according to the ISSVA classification to provide a common language of communication between specialties, which takes into account flow dynamics.

Conclusions: The ISSVA can be applied for vascular malformations of the orbit.

A review of classification, imaging, and management of vascular malformations of the orbit from a single practice.

*Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia and the Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

* See also p.180.

Accepted for publication December 2, 2013.

The authors have no financial or conflicts of interest to disclose.

This article is based on the study by Rootman et al.21

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Jack Rootman, M.D., Department of Ophthalmology, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, BC V5Z 3N9, Canada. E-mail:

© 2014 by The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc., All rights reserved.