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Computer-Aided Analysis of Orbital Volume: A Novel Technique

Strong, E. Bradley M.D.*; Fuller, Scott C. M.D.*; Chahal, Harinder S. M.D.

Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: January/February 2013 - Volume 29 - Issue 1 - p 1–5
doi: 10.1097/IOP.0b013e31826a24ea
Original Investigations

Objective: To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of a novel software tool designed specifically for volumetric analysis of the orbit.

Methods: The software was evaluated for accuracy and speed in analysis of orbital CT data sets. The analysis included: 1) intraoperator error: one operator repeatedly evaluated a single orbit multiple times. The variation in volumes was compared; 2) interoperator error: 3 operators evaluated the same orbits multiple times. The variation in volume measurements among operators was compared; 3) interscan error: one operator evaluated the volume of single orbit scanned on multiple occasions by different CT scanners. The variation in volume measurements among scans performed at different times was compared; and 4) time for analysis: one operator evaluated 52 orbits, recording the time it took to analyze each orbit.

Results: Intraoperator error was 0.08 cc (95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.10). Interoperator error was 0.18 cc (95% confidence interval, 0.14–0.20). Interscan variability data showed a trend toward increasing error for repeated patient scans using different CT scanners. Average time for analysis of single orbit was 138 seconds (standard deviation = 24; range, 95–217 seconds).

Conclusions: Maxillo is an accurate and efficient tool for semiautomatic evaluation of orbital volume in nontraumatized orbits.

Departments of *Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, U.S.A.

Accepted for publication July 12, 2012.

Dr. Strong: study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and manuscript preparation; Dr. Fuller: data acquisition and analysis; and Dr. Chahal: data analysis and manuscript preparation.

The authors have no financial interest in the Maxillo software or conflict of interest to disclose.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to E. Bradley Strong, M.D., Department of Otolaryngology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, 2521 Stockton Boulevard, Suite 7200, Sacramento, CA 95817. E-mail:

©2013The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc.