To describe the distinct clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings of orbitofrontal cholesterol granuloma and treatment approaches. We also present 2 atypical cases of cholesterol granuloma, one of which we believe represents the smallest and one of which the most extensive lesion among the previously reported cases in the literature.
The records of 8 patients with orbital cholesterol granuloma were reviewed retrospectively.
Mean age at presentation was 45 years. Six of 8 patients were male. The most common symptom at presentation was proptosis (50%). Computerized tomography of orbits showed a lytic lesion in the superolateral bony orbit with an extraconal soft tissue mass in 2 patients and a cystic lesion eroding the superolateral orbital roof in 4 patients. One patient had a small lytic lesion in the frontal bone without associated soft tissue mass and one patient had a very large destructive mass with extensive intracranial and orbital extension. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 2 patients and showed a non–contrast-enhancing lesion with high signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Seven patients were treated by aspiration of the contents and curettage of the lining by an extraperiosteal approach through a subbrow incision. One patient who was clinically thought to have a frontal mucocele was treated by frontal sinus exploration, removal of the lesion, and obliteration of the sinus. Two of 7 patients required lateral orbitotomy for better exposure of the tumor. Only one patient had recurrent symptoms and required a second surgery.
Orbitofrontal cholesterol granulomas have typical clinical and radiologic features. Surgical excision has a high success rate with a low incidence of recurrence.