Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a commonly performed procedure for patients with intracranial meningiomas.
To describe the clinical features of patients with radiation-induced cavernous malformations (RICM) after single-fraction meningioma SRS.
Retrospective study of patients having single-fraction SRS for intracranial meningioma at our center from 1990 through 2009, and 1 patient who had single-fraction SRS elsewhere. Patients were excluded if they refused research authorization (n = 7), had a World Health Organization Grade II or III meningioma (n = 65), had a genetic predisposition for tumor development (n = 52), had prior or concurrent radiation therapy (n = 49), or had less than 2 yr of magnetic resonance imaging follow-up after SRS (n = 77). The median follow-up of the remaining 426 patients was 7.9 yr (range, 2-24.9).
Three RICM (0.7%) were identified at 2, 10, and 21 yr after SRS. Two patients were asymptomatic, whereas 1 patient had a brainstem hemorrhage causing facial weakness and numbness. The risk of developing an RICM after SRS was 0.2% at 5 yr and 0.9% at 15 yr. All patients were observed and remained stable without additional bleeding in follow-up of 7, 12.8, and 2 yr, respectively. A fourth patient developed progressive neurological dysfunction starting 7 yr after SRS at another center and was treated for several years with bevacizumab without improvement. Surgical resection was performed 11.5 yr after SRS and histologic examination was consistent with an RICM.
The risk of RICM after single-fraction SRS for intracranial meningiomas is very low, but the latency period noted until their detection emphasizes the need for extended imaging follow-up after SRS of benign lesions.