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Neuroinflammation in the Developing Brain

Risk Factors, Involvement of Microglial Cells, and Implication for Early Anesthesia

Baud, O.; Saint-Faust, M.

doi: 10.1097/01.aoa.0000575200.00328.e8
Mother, Fetus, Neonate

(Anesth Analg. 2019;128(4):718–725. Doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000004032)

Microglia, permanent macrophages in the central nervous system, play a neuroprotective role but also a neurotoxic role when a developing brain is exposed to abnormal perinatal events, such as general anesthesia, surgery or analgesic drugs. These events may have adverse effects on maturation and plasticity. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the potential adverse effects of microglial functions, the regulation of microglial activation in the brain and anesthetic interactions should be further investigated. This article reviewed the most common situations associated with neuroinflammation and exacerbated systemic inflammation in infants along with the dual role of microglia in the resulting brain damage.

Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, University Hospitals Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; and Inserm U1141, Sorbonne, Paris Diderot University, Paris, France

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