Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in women of reproductive age, if managed in a suboptimal way, left untreated, or diagnosed after the development of extensive metastases.
The aims of this study were to review and compare the recommendations from published guidelines on these tumors of placental origin.
A descriptive review of guidelines from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the European Society for Medical Oncology, and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on GTD was carried out.
All the guidelines agree that suction evacuation is the optimal management for hydatidiform molar pregnancy and that chemotherapy, either single-agent (for low risk) or multiagent (for high risk), is the preferred treatment modality for choriocarcinoma. There is also a consensus that a future pregnancy should be avoided during follow-up; therefore, an effective contraception method should be used. All medical societies recommend the registration of such patients to GTD screening centers, endorse the use of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2000 scoring system, and mention that the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) should be based on the clinical presentation (from the genital tract and the metastatic sites) and the human chorionic gonadotropin evaluation. Additionally, all 4 medical societies recommend the surgical management of placental site trophoblastic tumors or epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, as chemotherapy is less effective in these cases. However, there is controversy regarding the appropriate follow-up after the treatment of hydatidiform mole, the administration of anti-D immunoglobulin, the time of oxytocin infusion, and the salvage regimens that may be used in cases of resistant or recurrent GTN.
There is need for consistent international practice protocols, which will lead to an earlier diagnosis and eventually to a more effective management of GTD worldwide and decrease in the recurrence rate and in the associated morbidity and mortality.
Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians.
After participating in this activity, the learner should be better able to assess the diagnostic aspects of GTD; evaluate treatment options for hydatidiform mole and GTN; and describe the appropriate follow-up options for cases complicated with GTD.