(Abstracted from Lancet 2019;393:340–348)
The rate of cesarean sections is increasing worldwide and is a great concern because of its association with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies, the more than 50% risk for a subsequent cesarean section, and the increase in costs of labor care. Assessment and identification of labor progression and prolonged labor, denoted as true labor dystocia and often caused by inadequate contractions or obstructed labor, have profound effects on labor management and intrapartum cesarean section (ICS) use, because labor dystocia is the main indication for an ICS.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Østfold Hospital Trust, Grålum (S.B., R.D.); Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University (OsloMet), Oslo (S.B., R.D., E.B.), Norway; Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China (J.Z.); National Centre for Fetal Medicine, St Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim (T.M.E.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger (T.M.E.); Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Women's Health (K.F.F.) and Research Support Services, Clinical Trial Unit (I.C.O.), Oslo University Hospital, Oslo; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of North Norway (P.Ø.); and Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway (UiT), Tromsø (P.Ø.), Norway