(Abstracted from Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018;219(1):10–25)
It is widely accepted that preterm birth is a syndrome caused by several pathological processes such as infection, vascular and decidual disorders, uterine overdistension, breakdown of maternal fetal tolerance, a decline in progesterone action, and cervical disease. A previous spontaneous preterm birth is a well-known risk factor for recurrent spontaneous preterm delivery.
Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Detroit, MI (A.C.-A., R.R., S.S.H., O.E., P.P.); Division of Intramural Research, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (A.C.-A., R.R., S.S.H., O.E., P.P.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit (A.C.-A., S.S.H., O.E., P.P.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (R.R.); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing (R.R.); Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit (R.R.), MI; Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia, Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual “Francisco Morato de Oliveira” and School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (E.D.F.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (J.M.O.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Turkish Red Crescent Altintepe Medical Center, Maltepe, Istanbul, Turkey (E.C.); Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, NY (G.W.C.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel (O.E.); and Harris Birthright Research Center for Fetal Medicine, King’s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom (K.H.N.)