(Abstracted from N Engl J Med 2017;377:1156–1167)
Preterm birth, caused by idiopathic onset of uterine contractions or rupture of fetal membranes, is a major risk factor for death in neonates and children younger than 5 years. Although there is evidence that preterm birth and gestational duration are affected by both maternal and fetal genomes, robust associations with genetic variations are still not established.
The Division of Human Genetics (G.Z., L.J.M.), Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology (M.T.W., D.E.M., X.C., C.R.F., L.C.K.), and Divisions of Biomedical Informatics and Developmental Biology (M.T.W.), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; Center for Prevention of Preterm Birth, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center Ohio Collaborative (G.Z., L.M.M., M.P., J.M.H., L.J.M.), Cincinnati, OH; Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut (B.F., X.L., F.G., H.A.B., M.M.); Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen (M.M.), Copenhagen; Research Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (E.A.N.), Denmark; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Ostra (J.B., V.S.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences (J.J.), and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (B.J.), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 23andMe, Mountain View (N.L., P.-P.J., L.R., D.A.H., Y.H.); Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (M.M.), CA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University (A.R.C., G.P.W., M.C.N., J.M.); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale Medical School (G.P.W.), New Haven; Yale Systems Biology Institute, West Haven (A.R.C., G.P.W., M.C.N., J.M.), CT; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (G.P.W.); PEDEGO Research Unit and Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu; Department of Children and Adolescents, Oulu University Hospital (M.K.K., M.R., J.M.H., M.H.), Oulu; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki (A.P.); Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital (K.T.), Helsinki, Finland; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry, and Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (A.P.); Program in Medical and Population Genetics and the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge (A.P.), MA; Departments of Pediatrics (A.M., B.B.) and Epidemiology (K.K.R.), College of Public Health, and Department of Pediatrics (K.K.R.), Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom (G.D.S.); and Department of Genetics and Bioinformatics, Area of Health Data and Digitalization, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway (B.J.)