(Abstracted from N Engl J Med 2017;377:329–337)
It is common for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks' gestation) to experience respiratory problems and to require assisted ventilation until they are able to breathe independently. Assisted ventilation is not without risk, however, as exposure to the airway pressure and higher concentrations of oxygen provided by the ventilators can injure the lungs and may result in arrested pulmonary development or bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Neonatal Services, Royal Women's Hospital (L.W.D., J.L.Y.C.); Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (L.W.D., J.L.Y.C.) and Paediatrics (L.W.D., S.R.), University of Melbourne; Department of Clinical Sciences, Murdoch Children's Research Institute (L.W.D., J.L.Y.C.); Newborn Services, Monash Medical Centre (E.C.); Department of Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute (A.-M.A., S.R.); Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital (A.-M.A., S.R.); and Neonatal Services, Mercy Hospital for Women (G.O.), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia