Congenital uterine anomalies (CUAs) are strongly associated with adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Health care providers must be able to diagnose these anomalies, understand their impact, and counsel women on interventions that might improve rates of pregnancy and live birth.
The aims of this study were to characterize CUAs and their effects on adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes, to describe the best imaging modalities to diagnose specific uterine anomalies, and to learn about interventions that may improve the reproductive outcomes of infertile and pregnant women.
A search of the PubMed database revealed 56 relevant studies, 49 of which were referenced in this comprehensive summary of the literature.
Congenital uterine anomalies are strongly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss, low birth weight, preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, malpresentation, and cesarean delivery. Transvaginal 3-dimensional ultrasonography appears to be the best initial test for uterine anomaly evaluation. Prior to conception, women who undergo hysteroscopic metroplasty may have better fertility and pregnancy outcomes.
Conclusions and Relevance
Congenital uterine anomalies, although rare in the general population, pose significant challenges to women and their clinicians with regard to fertility and pregnancy management. Accurate diagnosis, preconception counseling and metroplasty, and antenatal monitoring may improve reproductive outcomes for women with CUAs.
Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians.
After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to (1) characterize congenital uterine anomalies and their potential effects on adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes, (2) determine the best imaging modalities to diagnose specific uterine anomalies, and (3) counsel both infertile and pregnant patients about interventions that may improve their reproductive outcomes.