Pregnancy luteomas are rare, benign, neoplasms of the ovary thought to be caused by the hormonal effects of pregnancy. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging or surgery. However, they may present with virilization of the mother or infant or cause complications due to a mass effect or hemorrhage secondary to torsion. Luteomas spontaneously regress postpartum. We present a case of a woman with the classic presentation of a pregnancy luteoma and the common challenges of subsequent management. Pregnancy luteomas present a diagnostic and management challenge in that they can mimic the presentation of malignant ovarian tumors. There have been fewer than 200 case reports of pregnancy luteomas and a relative paucity of data to provide guidance for clinical management. However, certain general principles emerged from a review of modern cases. Management of pregnancy luteomas depends on the clinical situation. Luteomas present most commonly in the second half of pregnancy, with a solid ovarian mass that is frequently bilateral, elevated testosterone levels and some aspects of virilization. With high clinical suspicion for pregnancy luteoma, clinical monitoring and postpartum radiologic follow-up may be an appropriate management strategy to avoid unnecessary surgery. However, in some cases with atypical presentation or with complications from the mass, surgical intervention may be necessary for diagnostic or management purposes. Patients who present in the first half of pregnancy generally have more severe symptoms and are more likely to require surgical intervention for management of mass effect. When there is a high clinical suspicion for pregnancy luteoma, conservative management is appropriate since these tumors will usually regress spontaneously. After completing this CME activity, obstetrician/gynecologists should be better able to evaluate clinical presentations of pregnancy luteomas, examine the complexities involved in diagnosing neoplasms suspicious for pregnancy luteoma, and counsel patients about appropriate management and treatment options.
Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians, Pediatricians
After completion of this article, the reader should be better able to evaluate the clinical presentations of pregnancy luteomas; examine the complexities involved in the diagnosis of neoplasms suspicious for pregnancy luteoma; and counsel patients on appropriate management and treatment for suspected luteomas.