Cervical and prolapsed submucosal leiomyomas are rarely seen in pregnancy. Depending on the size threshold used to diagnose a leiomyoma, the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas in pregnancy is approximately 3% to 10%. The prevalence of clinically evident cervical leiomyomas in pregnancy is less than 1%. Contrary to prior thought, the majority of uterine leiomyomas in pregnancy do not usually lead to complications. Indications for surgical intervention in pregnancy for cervical leiomyomas include bleeding, infection, degeneration, pain, and urinary stasis. Preoperative imaging with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging may help to delineate the location and nature (e.g., pedunculated) of the cervical leiomyoma when clinical examination is inconclusive. We reviewed the current literature in regard to cervical leiomyomas in pregnancy and summarize the major findings. After completing this CME activity, readers should be better able to evaluate the prevalence and natural history of uterine and cervical leiomyomas in pregnancy, assess indications for surgical intervention in pregnant patients, manage surgical complications, and select imaging modalities that may determine their origin.
Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians
After completion of this educational activity, the reader should be better able to evaluate the prevalence and natural history of uterine leiomyomas in pregnancy; assess indications for surgical intervention in pregnant patients; manage surgical complications; and select imaging modalities that may determine their origin.