Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

CE Test

Diet Quality Indexes and Health

doi: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000407


  • Read the article on page 62.
  • The test for this CE activity must be taken online. Tests can not be mailed or faxed.
  • You will need to create (its free!) and login to your personal CE Planner account before taking online tests. Your planner will keep track of all your Lippincott Professional Development online CE activities for you.
  • There is only one correct answer for each question. A passing score for this test is 14 correct answers. If you pass, you can print your certificate of earned contact hours and access the answer key. If you fail, you have the option of taking the test again at no additional cost.
  • For questions, contact Lippincott Professional Development: 1-800-787-8985.

Registration Deadline: March 4, 2022

Continuing Education Information for Registered Dieticians and Dietetic Technicians, Registered:

The test for this activity for dietetic professionals is located online at Lippincott Professional Development (LPD) is a Continuing Professional Education (CPE) Accredited Provider with the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR), provider number LI001. Registered dietitians (RDs) will receive 2.0 continuing professional education units (CPEUs) for successful completion of this program/material, CPE Level 3. Dietetics practitioners may submit evaluations of the quality of programs/materials on the CDR website: LPD is approved as a provider of continuing education for the Florida Council for Dietetics and Nutrition, CE Broker # 50-1223.

Continuing Education Information for Nurses:

Lippincott Professional Development will award 1.5 contact hours for this continuing nursing education activity.

The test for this activity for nurses is located at

Lippincott Professional Development is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.

This activity is also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for 1.5 contact hours. Lippincott Professional Development is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, and Florida, CE Broker #50-1223.

Disclosure Statement:

The planners have disclosed no financial relationships related to this article.


  • The registration fee for this test is $17.95.


GENERAL PURPOSE: To present a literature review of dietary indexes that describe diet quality and correlating associations for health outcome predictability.


After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:

1. Compare and contrast the various dietary indexes described in the article.

2. Describe the methodology, focus, and findings of the dietary indexes.

3. Summarize the author's review of evidence and health outcome associations that correlate with the various dietary indexes.

  1. In the United Kingdom, the Office of Communication uses a profiling system to
    1. generate a 5-level front-of-pack system.
    2. generate a 10-level system for front-of-pack labeling.
    3. determine which foods can make health claims on their labels.
    4. determine foods that can and cannot be advertised during children's TV viewing time.
  2. Brazil has a NOVA food classification system that is based on processing instead of nutritional value. As a marker for processing, NOVA uses
    1. salt.
    2. sugar.
    3. additives.
    4. saturated fat.
  3. The NOVA system includes which of the following on its “avoid” category?
    1. Butter
    2. Beer and wine
    3. Paleo diet foods
    4. Mass-produced bread
  4. To examine if desirable changes occur in relevant biological parameters, the better method for predictive validity to test dietary recommendations includes
    1. trials.
    2. cohort studies.
    3. case-control studies.
    4. cross-sectional studies.
  5. The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition indexes limited to only dietary factors did not predict risk as well as the index that
    1. included smoking.
    2. excluded alcohol intake.
    3. measured physical activity.
    4. considered waist circumference measurements.
  6. Of the 4 indexes that were compared by Liese and colleagues from the Dietary Patterns Methods Project, 1 included
    1. Healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI).
    2. Diet Quality Index-International.
    3. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
    4. World Health Organization Healthy Diet Index.
  7. All 4 of the dietary indexes that Liese and colleagues compared focused on whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and
    1. alcohol.
    2. refined grains.
    3. low-fat dairy foods.
    4. plant-based protein.
  8. The Dietary Inflammatory Index combined a range of macronutrients and micronutrients with non-nutrient naturally occurring chemicals and
    1. vitamins.
    2. minerals.
    3. natural sugars.
    4. herbs and spices.
  9. Shivappa and colleagues concluded that there was no evidence that the Dietary Inflammatory Index was more strongly associated with mortality than the
    1. Mediterranean Diet Score.
    2. HNFI.
    3. Healthy Eating Index 2010.
    4. Diet Quality Index-International.
  10. In the Spanish cohort study, a hazard ratio of 0.78 or 22% lower mortality was associated with greater consumption of
    1. wine.
    2. coffee.
    3. saturated fat.
    4. artificial sweeteners.
  11. In the Spanish cohort study, an increment of 1 serving per day of which of the following was associated with a higher death rate of 18%?
    1. butter
    2. additives
    3. alcoholic beverages
    4. ultraprocessed food (ULP)
  12. Adriouch and colleagues found that results of the Food Standards Agency- Nutrient Profiling System (FSAm-NPS) index showed that food intake did not alter the incidence of
    1. stroke.
    2. colorectal cancer.
    3. coronary heart disease.
    4. cardiovascular disease.
  13. Schnabel and colleagues reported that the NutriNet-Santé study found that participants in the highest quartile of ULP food intake had a higher incidence of
    1. stroke.
    2. all cancers.
    3. hypertension.
    4. cardiovascular disease.
  14. After more than 12 years of follow-up, study participants in the most desirable quintile of intake by the FSAm-NPs model had a 25% lower overall incidence of
    1. cancer.
    2. female weight gain.
    3. elevated blood lipid levels.
    4. elevated fasting glucose levels.
  15. Data used from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study and classifying with the FSAm-NPS index showed those in the least desirable quintile of intake had specific associations with
    1. liver cancer.
    2. pancreatic cancer.
    3. gall bladder cancer.
    4. urinary bladder cancer.
  16. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra study found that lower consumption of ULP foods was related to a lower incidence of
    1. hypertension.
    2. elevated lipids.
    3. diabetes mellitus.
    4. gastroesophageal reflux.
  17. According to NOVA's 4 classification groups, an example of a processed culinary ingredient is
    1. fortified wine.
    2. infant formula.
    3. ground coffee.
    4. maple syrup.
  18. ULP foods, as categorized by the NOVA food classification groups, include
    1. honey.
    2. salt from mines.
    3. plant-based milk analogs.
    4. starch extracted from plants.
  19. As a basis of scoring, the Mediterranean Style Dietary Pattern Score uses
    1. 6 foods.
    2. 7 food types and sodium.
    3. 9 components.
    4. 13 food types.
  20. Which diet quality index has a basis of scoring that includes 3 foods, several nutrients, fatty acid ratio, and glycemic load?
    1. HNFI
    2. Healthy Eating Index 2010
    3. Healthy Lifestyle Index–diet
    4. Mediterranean Style Dietary Pattern Score
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.