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Assessment of Oats and Milk on Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2014 Data Sets

Olson, Audrey, MA; Frankenfeld, Cara L., PhD; Wallace, Taylor C., PhD, CFS, FACN; Johnson, Jodee, PhD

doi: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000308
Food and Nutrition

Background Oat consumption has been suggested to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease; oats are frequently co-consumed with milk, but also water and other products.

Methods We evaluated associations of 24-hour self-reported oat and cow’s milk consumption with cardiovascular disease risk factors using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2014) data. Daily oat and milk consumptions were classified as (1) no oats, no milk; (2) yes oats, no milk; (3) no oats, yes milk; or (4) yes oats, yes milk. We used no oats/no milk as a reference to assess the effects of oats, milk, and oat with milk consumption on markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The yes oats/no milk group was then used as the reference to further determine if a relationship between oat and milk consumption on the same day existed past that of previously reported oat consumption alone.

Results Self-reported oat intake was associated with improvements in some biomarkers of CVD risk. The prevalence of abdominal obesity measured as waist circumference was lower (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.73), and fewer than 3+ risk factors of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–0.85) were observed in the yes oats/yes milk group as compared with nonconsumers (no oats/no milk). Similar effects were found in the yes oats/no milk group. We did not find any synergistic effects of self-reported consumption of both milk and oats during a 24-hour period on markers of CVD.

Conclusions These results are consistent with clinical data showing oats to be associated with improvement in some biomarkers of CVD risk; however, the addition of milk does not appear to affect CVD risk factors in this cross-sectional data set.

Audrey Olson, MA, is a master of science degree candidate in the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.

Cara L. Frankenfeld, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Global and Community Health at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.

Taylor C. Wallace, PhD, CFS, FACN, is the principal and chief executive officer at the Think Healthy Group, Inc, Washington, DC; and a adjunct professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.

Jodee Johnson, PhD, is an associate principal scientist at PepsiCo Global R&D Nutrition Sciences, Barrington, Illinois.

Funding for this research was provided through an unrestricted educational grant from PepsiCo.

J.J. is currently employed by PepsiCo. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence: Taylor C. Wallace, PhD, CFS, FACN, Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, George Mason University, 10340 Democracy Lane, Suite 306, Fairfax, VA 22030 (taylor.wallace@me.com).

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