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An Overview of Glycemic Goals and Medications Used to Manage Type 2 Diabetes

Grams, Mary-Kathleen PharmD; Dinsmore, Suzanne PharmD, CGP; Goldman-Levine, Jennifer PharmD, CDE, BC-ADM, FCCP; Couris, R. Rebecca PhD

doi: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000074
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Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, comorbidities, and multiple medication use. Medication regimens may be complex, and adherence to these medications, as well as lifestyle modifications, is an important component to achieving optimal glycemic control. As the number of patients with diabetes increases, becoming familiar with the various treatment options for diabetes will be essential to best serve this patient population. The objectives of this overview are to provide a summary of the current glycemic goals used in monitoring patients with type 2 diabetes and a summary of the medications used in the management of this disease.

Mary-Kathleen Grams, PharmD, received her bachelor of science (BS) degree in pharmacy from Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, and her doctorate in pharmacy from Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (MCPHS) University, Boston, Massachusetts. She is currently an assistant professor of pharmacy practice at the School of Pharmacy, MCPHS University, Boston, and the director of the Post BS Pharmacy PharmD Program. Her interests lie in the area of community pharmacy, diabetes, anticoagulation, and distance education. Her teaching focuses on synchronous and asynchronous methods of learning, assessment, and communication. Dr Grams has presented at local, regional, national, and international conferences in the areas of pharmacy and online teaching methods.

Suzanne Dinsmore, PharmD, CGP, received her BS degree in pharmacy and doctorate in pharmacy from MCPHS University, Boston, Massachusetts. She is an assistant professor of pharmacy practice at School of Pharmacy, MCPHS University, in the Post BS Pharmacy PharmD Program. She is a certified geriatric pharmacist. Her primary areas of interests are distance education and geriatrics in relation to falls, renal dosing, medication reduction, and overall care. Dr Dinsmore has presented at local, regional, national, and international conferences in the areas of pharmacy and teaching.

Jennifer Goldman-Levine, PharmD, CDE, BC-ADM, FCCP, received her BS degree and doctorate degree in pharmacy at MCPHS University, Boston, Massachusetts. She completed her residency at the Boston VA Medical Center. She is a professor of pharmacy practice at School of Pharmacy, MCPHS University, and a clinical pharmacist at Well Life Medical in Salem, Massachusetts. She is a certified diabetes educator and board certified in advanced diabetes management. Her practice, research, and presentations are primarily in the areas of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

R. Rebecca Couris, PhD, received her BS and MS degrees at MCPHS University, Boston, Massachusetts. She received her doctor of philosophy degree in nutrition science at Tufts University School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, Massachusetts. She is a professor of nutrition science and pharmacy and is a clinical ambulatory care faculty that augments evidence-based conventional drug therapies with nutrition and lifestyle management interventions to optimize patient outcomes. Her areas of expertise include nutritional biochemistry, vitamin mineral supplementation, and drug-induced nutritional deficiencies. She has published and lectured in various national and international forums.

Dr. Goldman-Levine has disclosed that she is on the Speakers Bureau for Novo Nordisk. All other authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

This article has been reviewed and all potential or actual conflicts have been resolved.

Correspondence: Mary-Kathleen Grams, PharmD, MCPHS University, Pharmacy Practice Matricaria 3019, 179 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (kathy.grams@mcphs.edu).

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