Diabetes self-management and glycemic control are suboptimal among Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes with a large proportion of patients identified with metabolic syndrome.
Based on social cognitive theory, this study examines the effect of selected personal, behavioral, and environmental factors on self-management behaviors, glycemic control, metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 207 Chinese with Type 2 diabetes living in a suburban area of Beijing, China. Regression models were applied to examine the effect of selected personal, behavioral, and environmental factors on self-management behaviors, glycemic control, and metabolic syndrome. The relationship among individual self-management behaviors, glycemic control, and metabolic syndrome was also examined.
Self-efficacy was significantly associated with all self-management behaviors. Social support was related to overall self-management, diabetes knowledge was related to diet, and depressive symptoms was related to self-monitoring. Problem-solving and self-management behaviors related to medication adherence and diet were significant correlates of glycemic control. Health literacy and self-management behaviors related to physical activity were correlates of metabolic syndrome.
Findings suggest that a multifactorial approach may be beneficial when providing care for Chinese with Type 2 diabetes. In addition, these findings provide support for developing and testing tailored interventions that address problem-solving, health literacy, and self-efficacy, among other factors, to help patients achieve optimal glycemic control and thereby reduce their risk for metabolic syndrome and related complications.