There is very little scientific literature on the potential relationships between modifiable factors, including body composition, dietary pattern and physical activity (PA), and bone status in patients with fibromyalgia—a musculoskeletal condition characterized by chronic, widespread pain that is often accompanied by a broad spectrum of symptoms.
The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of body composition parameters, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med Diet), and PA on bone health in a population of premenopausal and postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS).
Ninety-five women diagnosed with FMS were included in this cross-sectional study. Body composition, including fat mass, percentage of fat mass, and lean mass (LM), were calculated using a body composition analyzer. Adherence to the Med Diet was measured through a validated 14-item questionnaire. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA. Bone mass at the calcaneus was estimated through quantitative ultrasound.
Linear regression analysis revealed that LM had a significant association with broadband ultrasound attenuation (β = 0.211, 95% CI [0.046, 1.259], p = .035) and stiffness index parameters (β = 0.201, 95% CI [0.019, 1.654], p = .045) after adjusting for age and menopausal status. The Med Diet was also significantly associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (β = 1.693, 95% CI [0.508, 2.879], p = .006).
LM and the Med Diet were consistently associated with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound parameters, supporting the hypothesis that LM and adherence to the Med Diet play determinant roles in bone health in FMS women. Training programs to maximize LM and strategies for promoting good adherence to the Med Diet should be considered in order to prevent the development of osteoporosis in FMS women. Because nurses are involved in implementing preventive programs, their roles in promoting this adherence to the Med Diet and maximizing LM in patients with FMS should help reduce the impact of osteoporosis.