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Recruitment Techniques and Strategies in a Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Study of Men and Women of African Ancestry

Davis, Stacy N.; Govindaraju, Swapamthi; Jackson, Brittany; Williams, Kimberly R.; Christy, Shannon M.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D.; Gwede, Clement K.

doi: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000274
HEALTH EQUITY SERIES
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Background Recruiting ethnically diverse Black participants to an innovative, community-based research study to reduce colorectal cancer screening disparities requires multipronged recruitment techniques.

Objectives This article describes active, passive, and snowball recruitment techniques, and challenges and lessons learned in recruiting a diverse sample of Black participants.

Methods For each of the three recruitment techniques, data were collected on strategies, enrollment efficiency (participants enrolled/participants evaluated), and reasons for ineligibility.

Results Five hundred sixty individuals were evaluated, and 330 individuals were enrolled. Active recruitment yielded the highest number of enrolled participants, followed by passive and snowball. Snowball recruitment was the most efficient technique, with enrollment efficiency of 72.4%, followed by passive (58.1%) and active (55.7%) techniques. There were significant differences in gender, education, country of origin, health insurance, and having a regular physician by recruitment technique (p < .05).

Discussion Multipronged recruitment techniques should be employed to increase reach, diversity, and study participation rates among Blacks. Although each recruitment technique had a variable enrollment efficiency, the use of multipronged recruitment techniques can lead to successful enrollment of diverse Blacks into cancer prevention and control interventions.

Stacy N. Davis, PhD, MPH, is Instructor, School of Public Health, the Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick. At the time this research was completed, she was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Swapamthi Govindaraju, BA, was Research Assistant, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, when the research was conducted.

Brittany Jackson, MPH, was Research Assistant, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, when the research was conducted.

Kimberly R. Williams, MPH, MS, is Research Assistant, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Shannon M. Christy, PhD, is Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis. At the time this research was completed, she was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Susan T. Vadaparampil, PhD, is Senior Member, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, and Professor, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

Gwendolyn P. Quinn, PhD, is Livia Wan Endowed Chair, New York University Medical Center, New York. At the time this research was completed, she was a Senior Member at Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, and Professor University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

David Shibata, MD, is Professor, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis. At the time this research was underway, he was a Senior Member at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Richard Roetzheim, MD, is Senior Member, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, and Professor, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

Cathy D. Meade, PhD, RN, FAAN, is Senior Member, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, and Professor, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

Clement K. Gwede, PhD, MPH, RN, FAAN, is Senior Member, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, and Professor, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

Accepted for publication November 20, 2017.

Health Equity Research Series.

The authors acknowledge the study was funded by Research Scholar Grant Award RSGT-11-012-01-CPPB (PI: C. K. Gwede) from the American Cancer Society. The work of the first and fifth authors were funded by R25CA090314-12 (PI: P. B. Jacobsen) from the National Cancer Institute at the NIH. The work conducted was also supported by the Biostatistics Core and the Survey Methods Core at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center (NIH/NCI Grant P30-CA076292).

This paper was accepted under the Editorship of Susan J. Henly.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

Corresponding author: Stacy N. Davis, PhD, MPH, Rutgers School of Public Health, 683 Hoes Lane West, Room 321, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (e-mail: Stacy.davis@rutgers.edu).

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