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Caregiver Burden and Satisfaction in Families of Individuals With Schizophrenia

Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Tsai, Yun-Fang

doi: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000047
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Background Caring for relatives with schizophrenia is complicated and has been associated with burden. Caregivers may also experience satisfaction, but these outcomes have not been simultaneously studied in family caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia.

Objectives The aim was to investigate the attributes of caregiver burden and satisfaction among individuals and families as well as the association of caregiver burden on caregiver satisfaction in the care of Taiwanese individuals with schizophrenia.

Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 140 families (243 individual family caregivers) was recruited from two psychiatric hospitals in Taiwan. Participants were interviewed individually to complete questionnaires regarding pileup of demands, sense of coherence, mutuality, caregiver burden, and caregiver satisfaction. Linear mixed modeling was used.

Results Female caregivers, greater family demands, decreased sense of coherence, and lower mutuality were associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, whereas being siblings or close relatives and being friends of the affected individuals were associated with lesser self-reported burden. Satisfaction was positively associated with caregiver age, sense of coherence, and mutuality. Burden and satisfaction were not significantly related.

Discussion Caring for family members with schizophrenia is burdensome but can also be a source of satisfaction. Correlates of caregiver burden appeared to be somewhat distinct from those of caregiver satisfaction. Further research on negative and positive aspects of caregiving is warranted to broaden the understanding of caregiving experiences and design therapeutic interventions to mitigate caregiver burden and enhance the sense of satisfaction with caregiving.

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Chiu-Yueh Hsiao, PhD, RN, is Associate Professor, School of Nursing and College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, and Department of Nursing, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Yun-Fang Tsai, PhD, RN, is Professor and Chair, School of Nursing and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, and Consultant, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (

Accepted for publication April 4, 2014.

The authors would like to express their appreciation to the research participants for their participation and to Dr. Mike Nolan for allowing them to use and include items from Carers’ Assessment of Satisfaction Index (CASI) in this article. The authors would also like to express their sincere thanks to the National Science Council, Taiwan, for funding this study (99-2410-H-040-017).

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Corresponding author: Yun-Fang Tsai, PhD, RN, 259, Wen-Hwa 1st Rd, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Republic of China (e-mail:

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.