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Using the Rasch Measurement Model in Psychometric Analysis of the Family Effectiveness Measure

McCreary, Linda L.; Conrad, Karen M.; Conrad, Kendon J.; Scott, Christy K; Funk, Rodney R.; Dennis, Michael L.

doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e31828eafe6

Background: Valid assessment of family functioning can play a vital role in optimizing client outcomes. Because family functioning is influenced by family structure, socioeconomic context, and culture, existing measures of family functioning—primarily developed with nuclear, middle-class European American families—may not be valid assessments of families in diverse populations. The Family Effectiveness Measure was developed to address this limitation.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the Family Effectiveness Measure with data from a primarily low-income African American convenience sample using the Rasch measurement model.

Methods: A sample of 607 adult women completed the measure. Rasch analysis was used to assess unidimensionality, response category functioning, item fit, person reliability, differential item functioning by race and parental status, and item hierarchy. Criterion-related validity was tested using correlations with five other variables related to family functioning.

Results: The Family Effectiveness Measure measures two separate constructs: The Effective Family Functioning construct was a psychometrically sound measure of the target construct that was more efficient because of the deletion of 22 items. The Ineffective Family Functioning construct consisted of 16 of those deleted items but was not as strong psychometrically. Items in both constructs evidenced no differential item functioning by race. Criterion-related validity was supported for both.

Discussion: In contrast to the prevailing conceptualization that family functioning is a single construct, assessed by positively and negatively worded items, use of the Rasch analysis suggested the existence of two constructs. Whereas the Effective Family Functioning scale is a strong and efficient measure of family functioning, the Ineffective Family Functioning scale will require additional item development and psychometric testing.

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Linda L. McCreary, PhD, RN, is Research Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Karen M. Conrad, PhD, MPH, RN, is Senior Research Scientist, Program Metrics, LLC, and Research Associate Professor, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Kendon J. Conrad, PhD, MSPH, is Senior Research Scientist, Chestnut Health Systems, and Professor Emeritus, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Christy K Scott, PhD, is Regional Director, Inc., Division of Chestnut Health Systems, Chicago, Illinois.

Rodney R. Funk, BS, is Research Associate, Chestnut Health Systems, Normal, Illinois.

Michael L. Dennis, PhD, is Senior Research Psychologist and GAIN Coordinating Center Director, Chestnut Health Systems, Inc., Normal, Illinois.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (

Accepted for publication August 23, 2012.

This paper was accepted under the editorship of Dr. Molly C. Dougherty.

Thank you to Barth R. Riley, PhD, for his thoughtful review of an earlier version of the article.

Funding was received for the parent research from the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse (R01DA021174; Scott, PI).

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Corresponding author: Linda L. McCreary, PhD, RN, College of Nursing (M/C 802), University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 S. Damen Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612-7350 (e-mail:

© 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.